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  1. African American Heritage Sites Seibels House Kitchen Dependency 1601 Richland Street
  2. African American Heritage Sites Hampton-Preston Mansion 1615 Blanding Street
  3. African American Heritage Sites Township Auditorium 1703 Taylor Street
  4. African American Heritage Sites Leevy’s Funeral Home 1831 Taylor Street
  5. African American Heritage Sites Matilda Evans Home 2027 Taylor Street
  6. African American Heritage Sites Harden Street Substation 1901 Harden Street
  7. African American Heritage Sites Benedict College 1600 Harden Street
  8. African American Heritage Sites Carver Theatre 1519 Harden Street
  9. African American Heritage Sites Allen University 1530 Harden Street
  10. African American Heritage Sites Good Samaritan-Waverly Hospital 2204 Hampton Street
  11. African American Heritage Sites First Calvary Baptist Church 1401 Pine Street (Original site: 1412 Richland Street)
  12. African American Heritage Sites Bishop's Memorial A.M.E Church 2221 Washington Street
  13. African American Heritage Sites Waverly Neighborhood Roughly bounded by Taylor, Heidt, Gervais, & Harden Streets
  14. African American Heritage Sites Elmore House 907 Tree Street
  15. African American Heritage Sites Chappelle Memorial A.M.E. Church 1101 Pine Street
  16. African American Heritage Sites Fair-Rutherford and Rutherford Houses 1326 & 1330 Gregg Street
  17. African American Heritage Sites Alston House 1811 Gervais Street
  18. African American Heritage Sites Wheeler Hill Neighborhood Roughly bounded by Barnwell, Catawba, Wheat, & Pickens Streets
  19. African American Heritage Sites Booker T. Washington High School Site Originally bounded by Blossom, Wheat & Marion Streets at the University of South Carolina
  20. African American Heritage Sites University of South Carolina Originally bounded by College, Sumter, Greene & Pickens Streets
  21. African American Heritage Sites South Carolina State House Main & Gervais Streets
  22. African American Heritage Sites Downtown Business District Bounded by Assembly, Huger, Taylor & Washington Streets
  23. African American Heritage Sites North Carolina Mutual Building 1001 Washington Street
  24. African American Heritage Sites Frederick House 1416 Park Street
  25. African American Heritage Sites Big Apple 1000 Hampton Street (Original site: 1300 Block of Park Street)
  26. African American Heritage Sites Site of First Howard School Northwest corner of Hampton & Lincoln Streets
  27. African American Heritage Sites Zion Baptist Church 801 Washington Street
  28. African American Heritage Sites Cornwell Tourist Home 1713 Wayne Street
  29. African American Heritage Sites Richard Samuel Roberts House 1717 Wayne Street
  30. African American Heritage Sites Site of Second Howard School Blanding & Williams Streets
  31. African American Heritage Sites Matthew J. Perry Jr. Federal Courthouse 901 Richland Street
  32. African American Heritage Sites Sidney Park Christian Methodist Episcopal Church 1114 Blanding Street
  33. African American Heritage Sites Kress Building 1508 Main Street
  34. African American Heritage Sites Second Site of Victory Savings Bank 919 Washington Street
  35. African American Heritage Sites Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church 1528 Sumter Street
  36. African American Heritage Sites Ladson Presbyterian Church 1720 Sumter Street
  37. African American Heritage Sites Mann-Simons Site 1403 Richland Street
  38. African American Heritage Sites Modjeska Monteith Simkins House 2025 Marion Street
  39. African American Heritage Sites Monteith School 6808 North Main Street, North Columbia (Original site: Adjacent to 6505 North Main Street)
  40. African American Heritage Sites Pinegrove Rosenwald School 937 Piney Woods Road, St. Andrews
  41. African American Heritage Sites Harbison Agricultural College 7300 College Street, Irmo
  42. African American Heritage Sites Barber House 116 Barberville Loop, Hopkins

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African American Heritage Sites

Seibels House Kitchen Dependency

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, Columbia, South Carolina, 1919, Courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C.

Columbia’s oldest remaining structure retains an important link to the era in which enslaved African Americans played an integral role in the daily operations of white households. Built sometime during the late 1820s to early 1830s, the property’s flanker (denoted in pink in this Sanborn Fire Insurance Company Map from 1919) functioned as a kitchen, a laundry, and most likely living quarters for enslaved domestic workers. Archaeological investigations within the building and surrounding yard have provided insight into food ways and material culture associated with 19th-century enslaved Columbians.

African American Heritage Sites

Seibels House Kitchen Dependency

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2

African American Heritage Sites

Hampton-Preston Mansion

The Hampton-Preston Mansion, February 1865, as illustrated in Harper’s Weekly magazine, Historic Columbia Foundation collection.

 

Enslaved African Americans constituted both the backbone of the South’s agrarian economy and the majority of the region’s population until the end of the Civil War. The 1860 census lists 88 people, of whom 74 were enslaved and 6 were free black, as living on the formerly 8-acre (2-block) urban estate, then owned by one of Columbia’s richest planter-class families. Slaves who performed tasks within the mansion most likely lived in flankers or dependencies located on this block, while others probably lived in quarters that stood one block to the east.

African American Heritage Sites

Hampton-Preston Mansion

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3

African American Heritage Sites

Township Auditorium

A circa-1930 Works Progress Administration project, this 2,500-3,500 seat auditorium was segregated for its first 40 years of existence. During the Jim Crow era white patrons entered through the front entrance while black patrons entered through the side entrance and sat in the balcony. When the venue’s performers were African American, seating was reversed; black patrons received first floor accommodations while whites sat in the balcony. In 2010, the Richland County-owned property reopened after a multi-million dollar rehabilitation that involved major aesthetic and systems improvements.

African American Heritage Sites

Township Auditorium

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4

African American Heritage Sites

Leevy’s Funeral Home

Entrepreneur Isaac Samuel “I.S.” Leevy escaped poverty to become one of the most prominent and influential African-American business leaders of the early 20th century in Richland County. Established in 1932 by Leevy as the first black-owned service station in the city, this property came to house his family’s funeral home, which is in its third generation of family ownership.

African American Heritage Sites

Leevy’s Funeral Home

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5

African American Heritage Sites

Matilda Evans Home

Image courtesy, A True Likeness, The Black South of Richard Samuel Roberts: 1920-1936; © The Estate of Richard Samuel Roberts, by permission of Bruccoli Clark Layman, Inc.

From 1928 until 1935, South Carolina’s first licensed African-American female physician lived at this address (shown here beside the now-demolished Griffon Memorial Building). Holding degrees from Aiken’s Schofield School, Oberlin College, and the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania Evans moved to Columbia in 1897. Evans is credited with founding the city’s first black hospital, known as Taylor Lane Hospital & Training School for Nurses; St. Luke’s Hospital & Training School for Nurses, and for serving in the U.S. Army Sanitary Corps during World War I Evans. In 1922, she became the first female president of the black Palmetto Medical Association.

African American Heritage Sites

Matilda Evans Home

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6

African American Heritage Sites

Harden Street Substation

Image courtesy John Hensel Photograph Collection, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

No African-American firefighters were employed by the City of Columbia before this Moderne style building was built in 1953 in response to pressure from the NAACP. The Waverly community-based station was outfitted with state-of-the-art firefighting equipment including modern radios, alarms, and new fire engines. However, the facility maintained institutional segregation with separate dormitories, lockers, showers, and restrooms for its staff of eight African-American firemen and two white officers. It was the only African-American fire station in Columbia until the fire department integrated in 1969.

African American Heritage Sites

Harden Street Substation

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7

African American Heritage Sites

Benedict College

Founded in 1870 by the American Baptist Home Mission Society to educate freedmen and their descendants, Benedict College was named after Stephen and Bathsheba Benedict, Rhode Island abolitionists who helped fund the school. Initially offering primary, secondary and college-level classes, the institution later focused solely on college students, providing blacks access to higher education during segregation. In 1937, a branch of the NAACP was established at the college and students took part in one of the first Civil Rights campaigns, a demonstration against lynching. Benedict would continue to have a place in civil activism throughout the 20th century.

African American Heritage Sites

Benedict College

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8

African American Heritage Sites

Carver Theatre

Image courtesy John H. McCray Papers, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia

Erected about 1941 in the Moderne style by William Crosland, the Carver Theater once was one of only two movie theaters in Columbia built exclusively for African-Americans. (Its counterpart, the Capitol Theatre, stood at 1017 Washington Street.) Offering both moving pictures and talent shows that mimicked Harlem’s “Amateur Hour,” this landmark proved especially popular with Allen University and Benedict College students. Closed in 1971, the formerly Dixie Amusement Company-owned property has since been put to alternative uses.

African American Heritage Sites

Carver Theatre

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9

African American Heritage Sites

Allen University

Colorized postcard of Coppin Hall, circa 1915, courtesy David and Marty Sennema

Recognizing the growing need for an educated ministry, the African Methodist Episcopal Church established Payne Institute in Cokesbury, SC in 1870. A decade later it was relocated to Columbia and renamed Allen University in honor of former slave and first A.M.E. Bishop Robert Allen. Initially, the school maintained both a theology program and a law school. Though the law department closed after several years, Allen University developed a liberal arts program that continues to serve students today.

Built between 1922 and 1925, this landmark is named for W.D. Chappelle, a former school president. Designed by John Anderson Lankford, who carries the distinction of being the first registered African-American architect, this classically-inspired building has accommodated administration offices, a dining hall, a mail room in the basement, and classrooms on the upper two floors.

African American Heritage Sites

Allen University

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10

African American Heritage Sites

Good Samaritan-Waverly Hospital

Nurses pose on the steps of old Good Samaritan Hospital. Image courtesy John H. McCray Papers, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia

From 1952 until 1973, many of Columbia’s African Americans who were denied medical care at white hospitals during the Jim Crow era came to this site for treatment. When it opened the Streamline Moderne style facility featured state-of–the-art amenities including a pharmacy, two operating rooms, a laboratory, an X-ray room, and a 50-bed capacity. The hospital’s creation in 1938 came from the merger of Good Samaritan Hospital, a nurse training school founded in 1910 by Dr. William S. Rhodes and his wife Lillian, and Waverly Hospital, founded in 1924 by black physician Dr. Norman A. Jenkins and his four brothers.

African American Heritage Sites

Good Samaritan-Waverly Hospital

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11

African American Heritage Sites

First Calvary Baptist Church

Image courtesy First Calvary Baptist Church

Organized under a brush arbor in 1865 as Calvary Baptist Church, forebears of this congregation met in what is today the Mann-Simons Cottage before building their own sanctuary in 1875 (shown here circa 1900). Conflicting interests among members resulted in the former Richland Street church splitting and forming the congregations of First Calvary, Second Calvary, and Zion.

African American Heritage Sites

First Calvary Baptist Church

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12

African American Heritage Sites

Bishop's Memorial A.M.E Church

Built in 1907, this Colonial Revival style church was originally named Woodrow Memorial Presbyterian Church after Dr. James Woodrow, an uncle of Woodrow Wilson and a professor at Columbia’s Presbyterian Theological Seminary. In 1921, the property became Salters Memorial A.M.E. Church after its white congregation relocated. In 1943, the church members changed their sanctuary’s name to Bishop’s Memorial.

African American Heritage Sites

Bishop's Memorial A.M.E Church

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13

African American Heritage Sites

Waverly Neighborhood

Image courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia

The Waverly Historic District’s original neighborhood covered twelve-block area adjacent to Columbia’s late 18th century city limits. Once part of a plantation owned by Robert Latta, in 1855, it was the one of the first documented subdivisions in Columbia. By the late 1800s, the neighborhood was home to both black and white working- and middle-class residents. In 1913, Waverly was annexed into the city. As the South became increasingly segregated during the Jim Crow era Waverly evolved into a self-contained, self-sustaining black community featuring many middle- and upper- class African-American residents, among whom were leaders within spiritual, business, academic, and professional circles.

African American Heritage Sites

Waverly Neighborhood

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14

African American Heritage Sites

Elmore House

Image courtesy John H. McCray Papers, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia

George A. Elmore and his wife Laura lived here from 1943 until 1954. A cab driver and the proprietor of a Five and Dime store, two liquor stores, and a photography business, Elmore is best known for his efforts to secure African-American voting rights in South Carolina’s state primaries. Elmore’s activism, which led to the 1947 lawsuit Elmore v. Rice resulted in threats to and economic ruin for him and his family, while contributing to his early death due to ill health.

African American Heritage Sites

Elmore House

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15

African American Heritage Sites

Chappelle Memorial A.M.E. Church

Today’s Chappelle Memorial A.M.E. Church grew from Chappelle Station, an A.M.E. mission church established in 1903. Following World War II, the congregation’s size merited construction of the current sanctuary, which was built for $33,000 in 1949 and dedicated the following year. Along with Lower Waverly’s other houses of worship, Chappelle Memorial has served as a spiritual, cultural, and social center within the African-American community for generations.

African American Heritage Sites

Chappelle Memorial A.M.E. Church

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16

African American Heritage Sites

Fair-Rutherford and Rutherford Houses

In his 1872 birds’ eye map of Columbia C. Drie’s documented Dr. Fair's residence that would later be purchased by William H. Rutherford and improved by successive generations of his family.

C. Drie, Bird’s Eye View of the City of Columbia, South Carolina, 1872, Courtesy of Library of Congress

In 1905, William H. Rutherford, a former slave turned teacher, barber, and manufacturer of fraternal regalia and cigars, purchased as a rental property the circa-1850 Greek Revival style cottage originally owned by Dr. Samuel Fair. (This building was demolished in 2004.) In 1914, his son Harry B. Rutherford, Sr. acquired adjacent property and within a decade, Harry’s widow, Carrie Rutherford, built the Rutherford House at 1330 Gregg. In 1982, this structure was rehabilitated as a dental office operated by one of William Rutherford’s great-grandsons. Three generations of the Rutherford family, which still owns the property today, became respected educators and administrators, illustrating the progression of one family from enslavement through social prominence and material achievement.

African American Heritage Sites

Fair-Rutherford and Rutherford Houses

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17

African American Heritage Sites

Alston House

C. Drie, Bird’s Eye View of the City of Columbia, South Carolina, 1872, Courtesy of Library of Congress

Built by 1872, as illustrated in the birds eye map of Columbia drawn in that year, this one-story Greek Revival cottage belonged to Carolina Alston, an early African-American businesswoman. Alston used the building as both her home and shop from about 1875 through 1895. One of only 25 black-owned businesses in Columbia in the 1890s, Alston’s store sold dry goods to the black community. In 1906, she sold the building to L.M. Keitt, another black business owner, who operated a grocery store. In 1946, the structure became home to McDuffie’s Antiques.

African American Heritage Sites

Alston House

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18

African American Heritage Sites

Wheeler Hill Neighborhood

Black youth gather in front of a lunch room that formerly stood at 320 Pickens Street.

Image courtesy John Hensel Photograph Collection, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

Once a predominantly black neighborhood, Wheeler Hill lost most of its African-American population throughout the 1970s and 1980s during the expansion of the University of South Carolina which forced the majority of the community’s residents to relocate, a scene played out on a larger scale within Ward One in what is today the Congaree Vista area.

African American Heritage Sites

Wheeler Hill Neighborhood

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19

African American Heritage Sites

Booker T. Washington High School Site

Proud members of the 1955 football team show their school spirit.

Image courtesy Booker T. Washington High School Foundation

When opened in 1916, Booker T. Washington School offered only elementary school education. It became Columbia’s only high school for black students in 1924. Accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, it attracted students from all over the state until it closed in 1974. Expansion of the University of South Carolina has erased the school’s former campus (depicted in this Sanborn Fire Insurance Company map from 1956), except for its circa-1927 auditorium. The important institution's legacy is maintained through the efforts of the Booker T. Washington High School Foundation.

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, Columbia, South Carolina, 1956, Courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C.

African American Heritage Sites

Booker T. Washington High School Site

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20

African American Heritage Sites

University of South Carolina

C. Drie, Bird’s Eye View of the City of Columbia, South Carolina, 1872, Courtesy of Library of Congress

African Americans have been an integral presence since this institution’s founding in 1801. Largely built and staffed by slave labor, South Carolina College, as it was initially called, once featured outbuildings for African Americans who served its faculty members. (One such structure remains behind the president’s house.) The only southern state university opened to African Americans between 1873 and 1877, the institution featured 233 black students, faculty, and staff. In 1877, the school closed to prevent their continued attendance. Upon reopening in 1880 the college barred blacks from enrolling. In 1963, Robert Anderson, James Solomon, Jr. and Columbia native Henrie Monteith integrated the institution for the second time.

African American Heritage Sites

University of South Carolina

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21

African American Heritage Sites

South Carolina State House

African-American legislators depicted in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, 16 December 1876.

From 1857 until 1861, the State of South Carolina used hundreds of enslaved African Americans in the construction of the State House, mainly for cutting granite at the nearby Granby quarry and performing manual labor. Three years after the Civil War ended blacks wielded a political majority within the state’s Reconstruction-era government, as over 80 served as legislators from 1868 through 1877. After Reconstruction ended, blacks were systematically eliminated from government and businesses throughout the South, especially in South Carolina. Not until Tuskegee Airman Earl Middleton was elected in 1974 did another African-American legislator serve in the State House.

African American Heritage Sites

South Carolina State House

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22

African American Heritage Sites

Downtown Business District

Image courtesy Richard Samuel Roberts Collection, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia

During segregation, particularly from 1920 through 1949, this area of Columbia featured so many African-American-owned businesses that it became popularly known as “Black Downtown.” Found within the district were professionals of all kinds, including leading attorneys, doctors, and proprietors of notable landmarks, such as the Capitol Theater that once stood at 1017 Washington Street [shown here], the Greenleaf Café, and Owen and Paul's Tailor Shop.

African American Heritage Sites

Downtown Business District

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23

African American Heritage Sites

North Carolina Mutual Building

The North Carolina Mutual Building stands in the background of this circa-1929/30 photograph of Robert Simons’ blacksmith/wheelwright/body shop, formerly located on the southwest corner of Gates (Park) and Washington streets.

Image courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

From A True Likeness, The Black South of Richard Samuel Roberts: 1920-1936; © The Estate of Richard Samuel Roberts, by permission of Bruccoli Clark Layman, Inc

The North Carolina Mutual building was built in 1909 by the North Carolina Mutual and Provident Association, an insurance company headquartered in Durham, North Carolina. Founded in 1898 by seven African-American businessmen, it became the largest black-owned life insurance company in the United States. The office building also housed many other professional African-American businesses, including the first law office for Nathaniel Jerome Frederick, credited as being the only practicing black attorney in Columbia during the early 20th century.

African American Heritage Sites

North Carolina Mutual Building

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24

African American Heritage Sites

Frederick House

The only practicing African-American attorney in Columbia for many years, Nathaniel Jerome Frederick (1877-1938) lived in this house, around the corner from his law office in the North Carolina Mutual Building. Prior to being admitted to the South Carolina bar in 1913, Frederick served as an educator and principal of the Howard School, at the time the only public school in South Carolina for African Americans. In 1925, Frederick founded The Palmetto Leader, a black newspaper for which he was editor, and he was integral in establishing Columbia’s Victory Savings Bank.

African American Heritage Sites

Frederick House

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25

African American Heritage Sites

Big Apple

Built as the House of Peace synagogue in 1915, this building became a popular African-American nightclub operated by “Fat” Sam and “Big” Elliot Wright from 1936 until 1938. Here Columbia’s black youth created the internationally famous “Big Apple” dance, named after the local hotspot in which it was born.

African American Heritage Sites

Big Apple

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26

African American Heritage Sites

Site of First Howard School

Image courtesy Warner Montgomery

By 1869, Columbia featured the first and what would remain for another 50 years the only public school for African Americans. Partially funded by the Freedmen’s Bureau, the two-story, wood-framed building initially accommodated students of all grades. In 1916, it became a grammar school for grades K-8. Nathaniel J. Frederick served as the institution’s principal for almost 20 years before becoming the state’s first African-American lawyer in 1913.

African American Heritage Sites

Site of First Howard School

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27

African American Heritage Sites

Zion Baptist Church

Members of Zion gather on November 10, 1929 during Reverend J.C. White’s farewell sermon.

Image courtesy Zion Baptist Church

Affectionately known as “Big Zion,” this circa-1916 landmark church replaced its congregation’s first, circa-1870 sanctuary, built only four years after members first assembled. Big Zion has been the host site for Civil Rights rallies during the course of the past 50 years, including gatherings during the tumultuous 1960s and more recently during efforts to remove the Confederate flag from the South Carolina State House dome.

African American Heritage Sites

Zion Baptist Church

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28

African American Heritage Sites

Cornwell Tourist Home

Image courtesy James E. Carter, III

From about 1940 through 1960, teacher Harriet Cornwell (pictured) welcomed African-American travelers who would have been turned away from white-owned motels and hotels. Thanks to its listing within the Negro Travelers’ Green Book, her residence was among a handful of Columbia houses whose owners provided safe accommodations for visitors of color. Four other such properties, including the S.H. Smith Tourist Home, at 929 Pine Street, in Lower Waverly, still stand.

African American Heritage Sites

Cornwell Tourist Home

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29

African American Heritage Sites

Richard Samuel Roberts House

Image courtesy Richard Samuel Roberts Collection, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia

A self-taught photographer, Richard Samuel Roberts lived in this house from 1920 until his death in 1936.  Roberts was a well-known black artist in Columbia, having opened a photography studio in the black business district by 1922. Today, his photographs provide an unparalleled perspective on the rise of Columbia’s black middle class during Jim Crow segregation of the 1920s through mid-1930s.

African American Heritage Sites

Richard Samuel Roberts House

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30

African American Heritage Sites

Site of Second Howard School

Image courtesy Richard Samuel Roberts Collection, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia

Following an appropriation of $300,000 in 1923 for improvements to its public schools, Columbia replaced the original Howard School with a modern two-story, twelve-room brick facility. Located a block east of the city's waterworks, the new school operated from 1924 until 1971, when it officially closed. Run as a "Walk-In" school from 1972 until 1975, the structure was demolished in November 1979.

African American Heritage Sites

Site of Second Howard School

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31

African American Heritage Sites

Matthew J. Perry Jr. Federal Courthouse

Image courtesy John H. McCray Papers, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia

Built in 2003, this recent addition to Arsenal Hill honors South Carolina’s most prominent Civil Rights lawyer and federal district court judge. A Columbia native, graduate of Booker T. Washington High School and veteran of World War II, Matthew James Perry was the state’s first African American to be appointed to the U.S. District Court and the first African-American lawyer from the Deep South to have been appointed to a federal bench with the U.S. Military Court of Appeals. One of his most successful court cases involved the battle to integrate Clemson University in 1963.

African American Heritage Sites

Matthew J. Perry Jr. Federal Courthouse

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32

African American Heritage Sites

Sidney Park Christian Methodist Episcopal Church

In 1866, 600 members left Bethel A.M.E. Church and affiliated with the then-Colored Methodist Church. In 1887, they established Sidney Park Christian Methodist Episcopal Church. The current circa-1893 when the congregation replaced its original frame structure which had burned. For over 110 years, this religious landmark has served as a church, school, meeting place, and concert hall.

African American Heritage Sites

Sidney Park Christian Methodist Episcopal Church

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33

African American Heritage Sites

Kress Building

Image courtesy John H. McCray Papers, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia

When built in 1934, Columbia’s newest dime store embraced the latest international architectural interest in Egyptian themes. A generation later, during the Civil Rights protests of the early 1960s, the Main Street attraction became a venue for social activism as black and white college students rallied against segregation by holding sit-ins at the store’s white-only lunch counter. Their efforts finally proved successful, as Columbia’s downtown stores integrated peacefully and opened their lunch counters to black customers in 1962.

African American Heritage Sites

Kress Building

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34

African American Heritage Sites

Second Site of Victory Savings Bank

African-American-owned businesses were vital resources within Columbia’s black community when access to white businesses and customer service was physically or socially limited under Jim Crow segregation. Founded by Dr. Henry Monteith and members of his family at 1107 Washington Street (now demolished) in 1921, Victory Savings Bank provided important financial services to African Americans, especially under economic pressure. Today, its successor, the South Carolina Community Bank, which maintains several Columbia-area branches, is the state’s only minority-owned banking institution.

African American Heritage Sites

Second Site of Victory Savings Bank

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35

African American Heritage Sites

Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church

Image courtesy John H. McCray Papers, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia

In 1921, the "Dean of Negro Architecture," John Anderson Lankford, rendered plans for this Romanesque Revival brick church. Lankford's detailed designs for churches, which included social halls reflecting their central importance to the black community, ultimately led to his appointment as the official architect of the A.M.E. denomination.

African American Heritage Sites

Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church

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36

African American Heritage Sites

Ladson Presbyterian Church

Image courtesy Minnie Walker Johnson Collection, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia

Ladson Presbyterian Church is home to one of Columbia’s oldest black congregations. Organized in 1838 as a separate but affiliated component of the white First Presbyterian Church, the congregation established its own church in 1874. Though a fire destroyed that building in 1895, the Revered Mack Johnson and his congregation worked quickly to construct this Romanesque Revival style structure one year later.

African American Heritage Sites

Ladson Presbyterian Church

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37

African American Heritage Sites

Mann-Simons Site

For over 140 years, this property was associated with Celia Mann, a free-black midwife from Charleston whose descendants were part of Columbia’s vibrant African-American community from the antebellum period to the present. Erected following Mann’s death in 1867 by her daughter Agnes Jackson (pictured), the Reconstruction-era cottage became the cornerstone of a number of family-owned houses and businesses. Saved in 1970 from destruction, the building was transformed into a house museum and center of African-American culture in 1978.

African American Heritage Sites

Mann-Simons Site

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38

African American Heritage Sites

Modjeska Monteith Simkins House

South Carolina’s matriarch of Civil Rights activists lived here from 1932 until her death in 1992. Over her distinguished career as an educator and champion of civil liberties Simkins rose to widespread acclaim. During segregation she hosted visiting Civil Rights leaders within her home and offered them lodging within its dependency.

African American Heritage Sites

Modjeska Monteith Simkins House

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39

African American Heritage Sites

Monteith School

During the late 19th century through the 1960s, African Americans in South Carolina attended segregated schools. In operation between 1890 and 1949, this three-teacher schoolhouse is one of the oldest black public schools in Richland County. In 1932, the facility was named for longtime teacher and principal, Rachel Monteith. The matriarch of a well-known Columbia family, Monteith was the mother of Rebecca Monteith, also a faculty member at the school; Henry Monteith, the founder of Victory Savings Bank; and Civil Rights activist Modjeska Monteith Simkins. Her grandchildren include Henrie Monteith, one of the first African Americans to attend the University of South Carolina in the 20th century.

African American Heritage Sites

Monteith School

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40

African American Heritage Sites

Pinegrove Rosenwald School

Image courtesy South Carolina Department of Archives and History

Built in 1923 with support from the Julius Rosenwald Fund, which established over 5,000 schools in 15 southern states from 1917 to 1932, this schoolhouse served St. Andrews’ African-American community for almost three decades. The school, whose two classrooms held at least three grades each, was closed in 1950 when Richland County’s 33 school districts were consolidated into six larger ones.

African American Heritage Sites

Pinegrove Rosenwald School

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41

African American Heritage Sites

Harbison Agricultural College

Image courtesy Harbison Agricultural College Collection, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia

When established in 1885 as Ferguson Academy, this Abbeville-based school operated as a co-educational facility. Upon relocating to Irmo in 1911, the institution became a college designed to “promote industrial, literary, moral, and religious progress of colored boys.” Situated on 500 acres and featuring five buildings by 1917, the Presbyterian school returned to co-educational instruction in 1933 during the Depression. The school closed in 1958, but its campus today serves as the Harbison branch of Midlands Technical College.

African American Heritage Sites

Harbison Agricultural College

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42

African American Heritage Sites

Barber House

Image courtesy Southeast Rural Community Outreach Ministries

This 42-acre property is well known for its connection with the South Carolina Land Commission, a governmental body established to help freedmen acquire land ownership and avoid the misfortune of sharecropping. Since its purchase by freedman Samuel Barber in 1872, the Barber House property has remained in the same family. After Samuel and his wife Harriet died in 1891 and 1899, respectively, the circa-1880 house and property passed to their son John, who, as a farmer, teacher, and preacher, raised eleven children with his wife Mamie.

African American Heritage Sites

Barber House

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