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Barhamville-Kendalltown

Drew Park

 

  

The Drew Park Pool Sharks, men and women's teams.  In the photo at right, T.S. Martin and Charles Bolden, Sr. flank the team at left and right, respectively. (Images courtesy of Drew Wellness Center).

Drew Park opened in 1946 as a 10.5 acre segregated recreational space for African Americans. The park was originally called Seegers Park after the white family who had previously owned the land and operated a brewery there. However, in response to efforts by locals to achieve a more representative name for the park, it was renamed posthumously in 1952 for Dr. Charles R. Drew, a prominent African American surgeon who was a pioneer in the field of blood transfusions.  Drew Park boasted the best facilities for African Americans in the city of Columbia, including a swimming pool which opened in May 1950, the first for African Americans in the city. The swimming pool was an especial point of pride for Drew Park due to the neighborhood’s highly successful men and women’s swimming teams, the “Drew Park Pool Sharks.” Neighborhood youth also enjoyed access to a spray pool, baseball, softball and football fields, tennis courts and picnicking areas. 

Nathaniel Stevenson, now Aquatics Director at Drew Wellness Center, accepts a championship trophy for the Sharks, c. 1960 (Image Courtesy of Drew Wellness Center)

During the 1950s and 1960s, Drew Park frequently hosted athletic and social activities, one of the more popular being the annual May Crowning festivities held by Columbia’s African American population. Many times, the park crowned one of the neighborhood’s own local young ladies as queen.  Hundreds of African Americans from across the city attended the crowning, celebrating the coronation with dancing, singing, costumes, and exchange of gifts.  Longtime residents of the historic Kendalltown area remember Drew Park fondly as a vital center for community growth and fellowship.

Today, Drew Park includes the Charles R. Drew Wellness Center, which opened in 2005, and offers the community a modern swimming pool, a gymnasium, a track, and a cardio workout center, as well as exercise classes and swimming lessons.  The park also provides playgrounds, a splash pad, a walking/jogging track and open green space for hosting community festivals and events.

 

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Drew Park

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Barhamville-Kendalltown

Second Nazareth Baptist Church

Second Nazareth Baptist Church was organized by the Reverend Rafe M. Myers in 1903 as Macedonia Baptist Church. According to church tradition, congregants originally met under a brush arbor on Gervais and Huger streets, later moving into an old store building on Gervais. Rev. Myers used an old barrel for a pulpit. The first church building was constructed during Myers’ thirty-year tenure as pastor. In 1945, Rev. A.C. Jones took over as the second pastor of 2nd Nazareth.

 

Four years later, Rev. William McKinley Bowman, Sr. took the helm and undertook extensive renovations and expansion on the church property. A highlight of Rev. Bowman’s pastoral tenure was the longtime radio station that he owned and ran for 2nd Nazareth Baptist. Seven days a week, twelve hours a day, Bowman broadcast religious music, commentary, and interviews with visiting gospel singers and ministers. He also aired his weekly sermons every Sunday at 11 am. The radio station was an important source of local and national news for Columbia’s African American community, most of whom did not own televisions and relied on the radio as their primary media outlet.¹  Rev. Bowman was an advocate for racial equality and civil rights. He ran for Columbia city council in 1954 and as a candidate for the State House of Representatives in 1958, on a platform calling for an interracial commission to aid in eliminating racial tensions in Richland County and South Carolina. The reverend encouraged African American participation at the polls, and used 2nd Nazareth Baptist Church as a venue for speakers on racial equality.  One notable speaker was Columbia resident Modjeska M. Simkins, director of public relations for the all-black Richland County Citizens Committee, who advocated in 1964 for integration of Columbia’s public schools. James Farmer, the national director of the Congress of Racial Equality, spoke at 2nd Nazareth in 1965 to encourage African American voter registration in Richland County in 1965.
Reverend Bowman served as pastor of 2nd Nazareth until 1996. The Baptist Church on Elmwood has continued to be active in the local community, establishing summer camps, educational foundations and programs for care of the elderly and for public service.

Rev. William McKinley Bowman Sr. broadcasting WOIC. (Image courtesy "South Carolina African Americans," http://scafricanamerican.com/honorees/view/2002/2/

 ¹ Interview with William McKinley Bowman Jr. (son of Pastor William McKinley Bowman, Sr.) January 22, 2015.

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Second Nazareth Baptist Church

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Barhamville-Kendalltown

Baxley's Grocery on Barhamville Road

The first M.H. Baxley Grocery store existed in the 1930s at 1309 Gregg Street. By the 1940s had expanded to a second location at 2339 Elmwood Avenue—where Hill’s Barber Shop stands today.  By 1962, the location of Baxley Grocery Store in Kendalltown had moved across the street to its present location. The owner and operator of the Baxley Grocery stores was Manning Hartford Baxley, a native South Carolinian and an African American entrepreneur who, in addition to his grocery stores (one was also located in Kershaw, S.C.), founded the Hartford Nursing Home and the Town and Tourist Motel on the corner of Harden and Lady streets.  Baxley was also reputed to have owned the first African American dairy in Columbia--Baxley’s Dairy.

Baxley’s entrepreneurial success paved the way for his selection as one of five Columbia members of the State Advisory Council for Small Business Administration in 1967, and he was honored as Business Man of the Year by Phi Beta Sigma fraternity.  Baxley’s wife, Beulah, was also a dynamic member of the local African American community, serving during the 1950s and 1960s as a chairwoman of the United Negro College Fund and the Negro Girl Scouts of South Carolina, as well as sitting on the board of several Christian service organizations affiliated with Wesley Methodist Church. In 1971, Beulah Baxley was elected to help preside at the annual meeting of the South Carolina United Methodist Conference that voted on the merger of black and white Methodist churches in South Carolina. Manning H. Baxley died in Columbia in 1980. His stores are no longer operating, but the buildings for “M.H. Baxley’s Groceries” at 1309 Gregg Street and “Baxley’s Produce and Grocery” at 2101 Barhamville Road still stand today.

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Baxley's Grocery on Barhamville Road

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Barhamville-Kendalltown

2400 Block of Matthews Street

View east down the 2400 block of Matthews Street in 1956 (left) and 1966 (right). (Images courtesy of Joseph Winter Collection, South Caroliniana Library)

 Known as George Street until 1944, Matthews Street possesses several intact examples of the “shotgun” house, a domestic vernacular style historically common throughout the South.  The shotgun house, popular from 1880 to 1930, was distinct for its narrow, rectangular form, usually one room wide and two rooms deep. This domestic style often populated modest or low income urban Southern neighborhoods and was once a more prominent presence on the streetscape of Columbia. Some historians trace the origin of the shotgun house to African and Haitian influences in New Orleans, where they subsequently were adopted by black freedmen who migrated to cities across the South.  Unfortunately, modern development in Columbia has replaced many of these distinct historic houses across the city.

View east at the corner of Barhamville and Matthews Streets today.

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2400 Block of Matthews Street

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Barhamville-Kendalltown

T.S. Martin Home

    

T.S. Martin (Image courtesy of Drew Wellness Center).

Thomas S. Martin was a well-known figure in Columbia’s African American community and education system until his death in 1993. He lived at 2112 Barhamville Road and taught science and physical education at his alma mater Booker T. Washington High School, the fierce athletic rival of C.A. Johnson High.  Martin was perhaps best known for his highly successful tenure as director of Drew Pool, where he led the boys and girls Drew Park Pool Sharks to multiple championships. 

The T.S. Martin home, at 2112 Barhamville Road.

Martin was born in 1911 in Charleston. He received his bachelor degree from Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte and a master’s degree from the University of Michigan before returning to teach in Columbia, South Carolina, where he lived on Barhamville Road. Martin continued the legacy of his teacher parents, along with his sister Ethel Bolden, who served for many years as a librarian and educator in Columbia’s African American schools. Martin distinguished himself among students and adults alike with his innovative methods of teaching and coaching, which included creating his own tennis courts for Booker T. Washington by mashing red clay with trash cans, and instructing students in Jewish folk dances and gymnastics. Martin worked assiduously to improve the physical education and health of young African Americans in segregated Columbia, founding a health and fitness program in city elementary schools and acting as director of the Richland County Red Cross and the Columbia Area Mental Health and Community Care. T.S. Martin Park, located north of Barhamville Road and W.A. Perry Middle School, was created in 1980 and named in honor of Martin's commitment and service to the black youth of Columbia.

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T.S. Martin Home

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Barhamville-Kendalltown

Bolden Family Home

      

This small brick ranch house located at 2123 Barhamville Road is the site of the Bolden family home. The Boldens were widely recognized for their dynamic civic participation and leadership both locally and nationally. A Columbia native, Charles Bolden, Sr. was an important role model for the city’s young people. He served as a guidance counselor with the University of South Carolina’s Upward Bound Program, where he assisted Richland County students prepare for college. Bolden Sr. was also head football coach and athletic director at C.A. Johnson High School from 1949 to 1972, and led the team to five state championships. His sons, Charles, Jr. and Warren, were successful athletes at CAJ during the 1960s. His wife, Ethel (sister of T.S. Martin), was also a vibrant force in the local education system. She served as a longtime librarian at W.A. Perry Jr. Middle School and Dreher High School and established libraries in African American elementary schools throughout the city of Columbia.  Ethel received her master’s degree in Library Science from Atlanta University, and in 1966 was named to Who’s Who in American Women.

Charles Sr. and Ethel Bolden (Image courtesy of USC College of Mass Communication and Information Sciences http://www.libsci.sc.edu/histories/oralhistory/bolden/ebphoto.html)

Charles Bolden, Jr. graduated from CAJ High School in 1964 and attended the United States Naval Academy. As a Marine pilot, he flew hundreds of wartime missions over Vietnam during the 1970s. In 1980, he was selected by NASA to be an astronaut candidate. During his tenure with National Aeronautic and Space Agency, Bolden Jr. piloted multiple space shuttles, including the Columbia in 1986, the Discovery in 1990, and the Atlantis in 1992. He returned to the U.S. Marines in 1994, serving as commanding general for Operation Desert Thunder in Kuwait in 1998, and finally retiring from the military as a major general in August 2004. In 2009, President Obama appointed Bolden Jr. administrator of NASA, a position he still holds today. Though now living in Houston, Texas, Bolden credits his beginnings in Columbia—his parents, his community, and his schooling—for much of his success. In a 2004 interview, he told The State, “I still have a sense of representing C.A. Johnson High School because when you get to the bottom line, I'm a product of that environment."

    

Charles Bolden Jr. at the United States Naval Academy, 1968. (photo courtesy of United States Naval Academy, http://www.usna.edu/NotableGraduates/Astronauts/bios/1968bolden.html).

Bolden Jr. training with NASA's vertical motion simulator, 1993. (photo courtesy NASA/Dominic Hart, http://www.nasa.gov/centers/ames/multimedia/images/2010/iotw/bolden_astronaut.html).

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Bolden Family Home

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Barhamville-Kendalltown

Saxon Homes

In April of 1953, the Columbia Housing Authority (CHA) opened Saxon Homes, a low-income housing project. The development was named for Celia Dial Saxon, who was born into slavery in Columbia in 1857. Saxon proved herself a persistent learner, graduating from the University of South Carolina in 1877 during the Reconstruction era. Saxon taught school in Columbia for fifty-five years. She advocated for women and children by helping to organize the State Federation of Colored Women, the Phyllis Wheatley branch of the Y.W.C.A., and the Williams Home for Orphans in Cayce. She died in 1935.

Celia Saxon (Image courtesy of USC's Office of Multicultural Student Affairs, http://www.sa.sc.edu/omsa/photo-gallery/living-the-dream-6-2/)

The 400 Saxon apartments ranged from one bedroom to five bedrooms, and included a gas range, indoor plumbing, a space heater, a refrigerator, electric lights, and modern (for the time) bathrooms. The complex consisted of sixty-four buildings, most of which were garden-style apartments. The project was intended to be modern in every respect, featuring up-to-date appliances and accessible recreational facilities. CHA provided a daycare center at Saxon Homes, and Benedict College provided daycare staff. Initially opened for families only, former residents remember Saxon Homes especially for its role in fostering family values and community solidarity.

The apartments were demolished in September of 2000, and the Columbia Housing Authority worked with the Cultural Council of Richland and Lexington Counties to create “The Door Project: Connecting the Past to the Future.” The project rescued doors from Saxon Homes and converted them into public art displayed throughout Columbia. A new public housing community called Upper and Lower Celia Saxon was constructed on the site of the old Saxon Homes in May 2001.

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Saxon Homes

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Barhamville-Kendalltown

Seeger's Brewery

In the nineteenth century, the Seegers family owned several dozen acres bounded by Elmwood Avenue, Barhamville Road, and the Southern Railroad tracks—land that is now occupied by Drew Park (originally called Seegers Park) and residential streets.  The Seeger family operated a farm on this acreage and established a brewery in the 1850s. Built circa 1852, the original brewery building was described as a “frame oblong building with four rooms and cellars beneath.”  A three-story brick addition was added later.

Business petered out during the Civil War and remained all but inoperative until John Conrad Seegers re-established the country brewery in 1895. Seegers advertised his high grade German beers—Bergner & Engels Tanhauser, Christian Moerlein—in The State, and delivered crates of the beer to city patrons. Seegers’ beer business was discontinued in the early 20th century, though for decades afterward the property was still referred to locally as the “Old Seegers Brewery.” When it burned down in late November of 1928, the old brewery building was serving as a storage place for hay, seeds and old furniture.

J.C. Seegers’ sister and her husband, W.G. Allworden, lived on the Seegers property and owned a house which survived the fire, and the family continued to live there and operate a small farm until the 1940s.  In 1944, Dr. Samuel Higgins, president of Allen University, purchased and moved into the home.  In the same year, the city of Columbia acquired ten acres of the old Seegers property for the purpose of creating an African American park—what would become Drew Park—and private development established a new subdivision of “high class” African-American residences on the remaining acreage.

 

W.G. Allworden (standing), Willie Milne, Annie (Seegers) Alworden, and Bessie Milne pose on the Allworden house in Kendalltown, c. 1915. (Image courtesy of Historic Columbia).

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Seeger's Brewery

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Barhamville-Kendalltown

State Hospital Cemetery for African Americans

Between 2,000 and 3,500 African Americans are buried in this historic cemetery plot on Slighs Avenue. The cemetery was established as a segregated burial ground exclusively for black patients from the now defunct State Hospital for the Mentally Ill, located on Bull Street and operative from 1828 through the 1980s. It was situated at the far edge of the Hospital property and was inaccessible by public road until the late 1980s. Patients were buried in the cemetery until 1922, and by 1930 another cemetery for black patients had opened at State Park, the hospital asylum established north of the city for African Americans.³ 

  

Built in 1898, the Parker Building at the State Hospital for the Mentally Ill housed African Americans until 1927.

The cemetery was largely forgotten by the public and local government until 1983, when a railroad relocation project undertaken by the city necessitated the reburial of some of the graves on Slighs Avenue. The presumed knowledge of this site from that point provided the basis for a controversy that erupted in the early 2000s. Though the City Council voted unanimously in 2001 to “preserve, protect, and appropriately honor” those buried off of Slighs Avenue, a jointly funded project to develop a golf course on cemetery land nonetheless materialized over the next decade.  Today, the James E. Clyburn Golf Center, supported by the city and a private foundation, is situated over the site of the old African American cemetery.  The golf facility has mounted a net to catch balls from landing on where they believe graves are located. 

The James E. Clyburn Golf Center today.

³Michael Trinkley, Ph.D and Debi Hacker,“Dealing with Death: The Use and Loss of Cemeteries by the S.C. State Hospital in Columbia, South Carolina.” Columbia SC: Chicora Foundation Inc, (January 17 2001).

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State Hospital Cemetery for African Americans

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Barhamville-Kendalltown

Dart Street Duplexes

    

Dart Street looking south toward Chesnut Street, c. 1960. (Image courtesy of Joseph E. Winter Collection, USC Digital Collections).

In 1947, amid a wave of urban expansion, sixty-five new streets were named in Columbia. Among them was “Warehouse Street,” located directly west of where the Leevy School once stood, and where C.A. Johnson High School would be under construction the next year.  Warehouse Street, as its name suggested, was originally planned to serve a warehouse district adjacent to the Southern Railway tracks. Instead, the post-World War II population boom resulted in the growth of residential housing on this street in the late 1940s.  The post-war influx of returning servicemen and growing families precipitated a trend of space-efficient, multi-family homes across the city of Columbia, particularly in the form of duplexes.  The homes built along Warehouse Street developed as part of this pattern, and many still stand today. They are simple, front-gabled structures with  small front porticos, wooden siding and metal seam roofs, and are usually two rooms wide and two or three rooms deep. In the 1940s and 1950s, they were advertised specifically for African American tenants.

    

In 1964, a spark from a fireplace set 2205 Dart Street ablaze. Damage was contained, and the duplex stands largely unaltered today. The houses at the far left (photo at left) are no longer extant. (Images courtesy of Joseph E. Winter Collection, USC Digital Collections).

In 1952, the residents who lived along Warehouse Street signed a petition asking that City Council change the name of their residential street, which had, in fact, never seen the erection of a single warehouse. The citizens suggested “North Oak Street” as a natural continuation of Oak Street, which ran north-south through historic Kendalltown and ended several blocks short of C.A. Johnson High School. The City Council vetoed this name, but considered other options that incorporated the names of significant African Americans who had lived or worked in the neighborhood: Perry, for W. Augustus Perry, the former principal of Waverly School; Jaggers, for the Reverend Charles Jaggers; and Chappelle, after a former president of Allen University. In the end, residents and City Council agreed upon “Dart Street,” for William A. Dart, who was a former principal of Howard School and a graduate of Howard University in Washington D.C.

2203-2207 (2205 at center) today.

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Dart Street Duplexes

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Barhamville-Kendalltown

C.A. Johnson High School

Architecturally, C.A. Johnson High School has changed very little since its completion in 1949.

Known locally as “C.A.J.,” the high school located on Barhamville Road opened in 1949 and was dedicated the following year to Cornell Alvin Johnson, supervisor at that time of Columbia’s African American schools. Johnson was a giant in the segregated educational system of Columbia, beginning his career as a teacher at Howard School in 1914, the city’s first—founded in 1869—and for many years, only African American school.  When Johnson taught English at Howard, the school had a student body of about 900 students and twenty-five teachers, all housed in the two-story frame building.  C.A.J. High School opened initially with the capacity for both junior high and high school students and was intended to relieve crowding at nearby Booker T. Washington High School.  Today, the school serves 430 students in grades 9-12.

Cornell Alvin Johnson (image courtesy of C.A. Johnson Alumni Association)

Alumni of C.A.J. remember the school with fostering a strong work ethic and challenging academics, as well as providing a solid base of support from committed teachers and staff. Perhaps one of C.A.J.’s most famous graduates, Charles Bolden Jr., credits his high school alma mater with serving as a “model” for his successful career as Major General in the U.S. Marines and a NASA astronaut and administrator. 

In addition to a strong academic tradition, C.A.J. boasts championship quality athletics, winning the state title in boys’ basketball as recently as 2014.

During the 2013-2014 school year, C.A. Johnson students worked with Historic Columbia to create video documentaries that explore historic sites located in the Kendalltown-Barhamville neighborhood. Students performed research on their local history and interviewed C.A. Johnson alumni. Working as teams, the students filmed and edited the interviews and historic material, and produced a series of videos that can be viewed at the link below.


www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLTTYXnc2Euq1404x1TMohbaHN2S7bkm5G

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C.A. Johnson High School

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Barhamville-Kendalltown

Leevy School

Located where C.A. Johnson High School stands today, Leevy Grammar School was constructed in 1927 for African Americans. The first such school built in northeastern Columbia, Leevy School was established after Waverly Grammar School was incorporated into the white Columbia education system, leaving some two hundred African American children with no school to attend. The new grammar school was partially funded by the Rosenwald Fund, a foundation established by Julius Rosenwald, the Chairman of the Board of Sears Roebuck and a philanthropist committed to improving education for African American children attending school in a segregated system.  Rosenwald’s fund aided the construction of over 5,000 African American schools across the South during the 1920s and 1930s. Leevy School exemplified the typical Rosenwald school design, one or one-and-a-half story tall, featuring white or unpainted weatherboard siding, a front gable, and banks of large, closely set windows.¹

  

Though the Leevy School no longer stands today, it was very similar in appearance to the typical Rosenwald school design, as seen in the Pine Grove School north of Columbia (bottom), the last extant Rosenwald School in Richland County. (Image courtesy of South Carolina State Historic Preservation Office)

The Leevy School was named for I.S. Leevy, a prominent African-American businessman in Columbia during the early and mid-twentieth century.  Leevy moved to the city of Columbia in 1907 under the persuasion of the celebrated Reverend Richard Carroll, and immediately began a long career of successful entrepreneurship and civic engagement. Among some of his accomplishments were the founding of the Columbia branch of the NAACP, Booker T. Washington High School, the graduate school of South Carolina State College, and his namesake grammar school in Barhamville.  Mr. Leevy was also politically active, running frequently as a candidate for Columbia City Council, the state legislature, and U.S. Congress; first running on the Republican ticket, he switched his affiliation to the Democratic Party in the 1960s during the emergence of new Civil Rights legislation.

The Leevy School was eventually incorporated into Carver Elementary School, which was established in 1938 a few blocks south on Elmwood Avenue. The old Rosenwald school building was demolished, and C.A. Johnson High School was erected on the site in 1948.

¹Fisk University Rosewald Fund Card File Database, http://rosenwald.fisk.edu/?module=search.details&set_v=aWQ9MzcxMg==&school_historic_name=kendalltown&button=Search&o=0 (September 2014).


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Leevy School

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Barhamville-Kendalltown

Reverend Richard Carroll

    

Rev. Richard Carroll and his wife, Corrie J. Carroll. (Images courtesy of University of South Carolina Digital Collections). 

The Reverend Richard Carroll lived and died at 2214 Barhamville Road, in a house no longer extant, and today the site of a modern apartment building.  Born into slavery in 1859 in Barnwell County, Richard Carroll studied theology at Benedict College in Columbia and Shaw University in North Carolina and became a Baptist minister. After serving as chaplain for the 10th U.S. Infantry during the Spanish-American War, Carroll returned to South Carolina and founded the Industrial Home for Boys and Girls, an institution located just outside of the city of Columbia on land once owned by Hamptons and established with the purpose of educating African American youth.

Carroll was politically very active, championing an agrarian philosophy which encouraged African Americans to avoid urban areas and maintain a rural lifestyle. Though near to the city’s boundaries, Carroll’s own home on Barhamville Road, during the early twentieth century, still consisted mostly of farmsteads and open land.  Carroll was remarkable for his unusual influence among white politicians, garnering the support of individuals such as South Carolina Senator Benjamin R. Tillman and U.S. ambassador William E. Gonzalez.  Criticized by some as too acquiescent to the inequalities existing between blacks and whites, Reverend Carroll was nonetheless a nationally prominent African American minister and speaker, and his funeral at First Calvary Baptist Church on Pine Street, on November 1, 1929, was the first police-escorted funeral held for any African American in the city of Columbia.¹

¹Richard Carroll Papers, 1908-1977, Manuscripts Collection at South Caroliniana Library, USC, http://library.sc.edu/socar/uscs/1998/carrol98.html (September 2014).

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Reverend Richard Carroll

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Barhamville-Kendalltown

Muhammad’s Temple of Islam

 

Muhammad's Temple of Islam, 1963 (Image Courtesy of The State)

No longer standing, Muhammad’s Temple of Islam was located at 2217 Waverly Street behind what is today the Progressive Church of Our Lord. The Temple was a small, rectangular cinderblock and brick building with a front gabled roof. The façade appeared similar to many Christian churches, with large central doors and arched windows marked with panels of the Islamic star and crescent. The temple served as the center for Columbia’s Nation of Islam community during the 1960s. When Malcolm X visited the city in 1963, all other public city venues approached by the Black Muslims refused to host the planned gathering, and the Nation of Islam leader spoke instead at the small, crowded Waverly Street mosque. For three hours, Malcolm X preached his message of black separatism—“Let the white man have his own, control his own and use his own for the benefit of his own. We only want what we can develop and earn for ourselves without help from the white man.” The State reporter Sam McCuen, the “only white guy in the building,” came away from the Temple awed, stating, “He had me convinced I was a blue-eyed devil. He was an incredible orator.”¹  

Malcolm X speaking at Muhammad's Temple of Islam, April 16, 1963 (Image Courtesy of The State)

¹ Joey Holleman, "50 Years Ago: Malcolm X, RFK Brought Heated Rhetoric of Civil Rights Fight to Columbia," The State, http://www.thestate.com/2013/04/13/2723463_50-years-ago-malcolm-x-rfk-brought.html?rh=1 (accessed November 2014).

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Muhammad’s Temple of Islam

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Barhamville-Kendalltown

2200 Block of Harper Street

Harper Street contains some of the oldest homes in the historic Kendalltown neighborhood still intact and presents an exemplary spectrum of modest, early 20th century housing in Columbia. The houses located at 2209-2219 Harper Street were all built roughly between the years 1920 to 1940. 

   

2212 Harper Street (left) and 2214 (right).

2212 and 2214 Harper were erected as early as 1920 and are identical forms of the hall-and-parlor style, though the original brick exterior of 2214 has been covered in aluminum siding. Both houses feature a front stoop with an overhanging porch roof, and 2212 still features an historic metal seam roof over the main portion of the house as well as over the porch. 2203, situated at the northwest corner of Harper and Chesnut streets, was constructed around the same time and was originally nearly identical to these two homes as well, prior to the modern additions and siding applied to all sides of the building. The original brick façade is still visible, as well as the distinctive brickwork ornamenting the two front corners of the house.

2209 Harper Street.

2209 Harper was constructed around 1930, and serves as a rare example of the Craftsman bungalow style in the Barhamville Road area today. The Craftsman style swept the U.S. during the first half of the twentieth century. Though its details varied by region, the bungalow at 2209 Harper demonstrates many key features of the style, including the thick, tapered columns resting on brick piers; the low, deeply recessed porch; and the exposed rafter tails. 

  

2211 Harper Street.

The two homes lying north of 2209—situated on the 2211 Harper parcel—are variations of the shotgun house style. Though slightly wider and longer than the shotgun homes located on Matthews Street, and accessed by side porch steps rather than a central stair, the 2211 buildings possess the same basic arrangement and footprint. Some distinctive elements on the two houses include the vertical wooden front gable siding, and the metal seam roof on the north house. 

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2200 Block of Harper Street

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Barhamville-Kendalltown

Edgewood School

The Old Edgewood School was established in 1892 on a quarter-acre lot on what is today an empty lot at 2302 Two Notch Road. The school originated as a small, frame building intended to serve the rural youth of the Edgewood neighborhood along Barhamville Road. As Edgewood grew into a more populous and prosperous suburb during the next two decades, the school population more than tripled by 1911, and the old school building was incorporated into a new, expanded structure that stood two stories high and included four classrooms and an auditorium.  By 1914, attendance had increased to two hundred students, under the direction of five teachers. . 

The State, 1928 (Image courtesy of Newsbank).

The explosive growth of Edgewood School during the early twentieth century reflected the increasing urbanization of this northeast suburb of Columbia, paralleling the area’s development from a rural, agricultural district into a well-populated suburb of the city, increasingly connected by streetcar lines and urban infrastructure. In 1936, the heavy traffic along Two Notch Road, as well as a constrained amount of recreational space, prompted officials to relocate the school two blocks north near the intersection of Covenant Road and Two Notch, and the school operated here through the 1960s. The original school building was converted into apartments, which no longer stand. 

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Edgewood School

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Barhamville-Kendalltown

W.A. Perry Middle School

The opening of W.A. Perry Junior High School earned a full page spread in Columbia's The State, July 20, 1956 (Image courtesy of Newsbank).

W.A. Perry Junior High School opened in 1956 for African American seventh and eighth graders. Designed by prominent city architects Lafaye, Faire, and Lafaye, the school’s distinctly mid-century modern design earned a full page spread in The State. At the time of its opening, it was heralded as one of Columbia’s three “campus style” schools, characterized by a layout of isolated units intended to maximize the use of space. The original units consisted of an administrative center, a classroom building, and a library. The interior was also carefully conceived, designed to require minimum maintenance and to emphasize natural lighting through skylights and breeze windows. The school building incorporated modern 1950s equipment. Refrigerators, electric stoves, and washing machines occupied the home economics room, and classroom chairs and desks were shaped specifically for comfort and healthy posture.

The school was named for William A. Perry, the first African American principal in the city of Columbia to earn a master’s degree. Perry originally hailed from North Carolina and earned degrees from Yale and Harvard, and then began a teaching career at a high school in Brunswick, Georgia, before coming to Columbia where he served as principal of Waverly School. In conjunction with his position at Waverly, Perry acted as director of student teaching and observation at Allen University. Perry was active in his parish at St. Luke’s Episcopal Church in Columbia, serving as vestryman, organist, Bible class teacher and choir director, until his death in 1938.

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W.A. Perry Middle School

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Barhamville-Kendalltown

South Carolina Female Collegiate Institute

Also known as the Barhamville Collegiate Institute for Women or Barhamville Academy, this prestigious women’s school was founded in 1828 by Dr. Elias Marks, a wealthy physician and Charleston native. Born into a Jewish family, Dr. Marks was influenced by his childhood nurse, an African American Methodist woman, and converted to Christianity at a young age. He founded his school for women as a Methodist institution and named it for his recently deceased wife, Jane Barham.

 

Image courtesy Historic Columbia collection.

By the 1850s, over one hundred students were enrolled, many from outside of South Carolina. The young women generally came out of the antebellum planter class and prominent families. Some notable students included Anna Calhoun, daughter of John C. Calhoun; Ann Pamela Cunningham, founder of the Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association; and Martha Bulloch, mother of Theodore Roosevelt. Courses for the young women included mathematics, chemistry, history, drawing, modern languages, music and dance. The campus also included a chapel for weekly services to help round out a curriculum that fostered intellectual, moral and physical well-being. This holistic approach was intended to establish students as well-rounded individuals who could carry out the duties of Southern gentlewomen during the antebellum period.¹ 

The school operated until 1865, and in 1866, the property went up for sale. Three years later, in February of 1869, the campus burned down. No extant structure of it remains. Today, an historical marker at the intersection of Two Notch Road and Ogden Street identifies part of the plot of land where the South Carolina Female Collegiate Institute once stood.

¹ Isabella M.E. Blandin. History of Higher Education of Women in the South Prior to 1860 (New York and Washington: The Neale Publishing Company, 1909). http://books.google.com/books?id=C6AWAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA260&lpg=PA260&dq=barhamville+school+elias+marks&source=bl&ots=WpBQeuLlRm&sig=59hqcswze4ukkUnukzlgPh4CXrs&hl=en&sa=X&ei=LIYYVLD7DIK_ggT5kIG4DA&ved=0CEsQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=barhamville%20school%20elias%20marks&f=false  

Barhamville-Kendalltown

South Carolina Female Collegiate Institute

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Jaggers Terrace

Rev. Charles Jaggers (Image courtesy of Columbia Museum of Art).

Five years after Saxon Homes opened in 1953, the Columbia Housing Authority established another public housing complex, Jaggers Terrace, on the site of the nineteenth-century Barhamville Collegiate Institute for Women. Smaller than Saxon Homes, Jagger’s Terrace provided 74 units of apartment living for families for over 40 years. In 1999, the Columbia Housing Authority demolished this complex and erected 25 single-family houses on the site.

Designed for low-income families, the complex was named in honor of the Charles Jaggers, a figure legendary for his humble charity to the African American poor and elderly in Columbia during the 19th and early 20th century. Jaggers was born into slavery in Chester County, South Carolina. After the Civil War, he migrated north to Columbia, where he lived with his wife and sons on Oak Street in the Lower Waverly neighborhood. Though he never received official seminary education or ordination, Jaggers was addressed as “Reverend” by whites and blacks alike, and was beloved for his ministry to prisoners, the ill, the poor, and the elderly, the latter for whom he established The Old Folks’ Home in the Barhamville-Waverly area.  When Reverend Jaggers died in 1924 at age 93, his funeral attracted thousands of mourners—including the state governor Thomas Gordon McLeod and former governors—and moved the mayor to call for the closure of all city businesses during the funeral service hour.

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Jaggers Terrace

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Barhamville-Kendalltown

Kendalltown

By 1896, some two to three hundred middle-class African Americans had formed a small suburb called “Kendalltown,” located northeast of the city in the modern day Barhamville Road area. The neighborhood initially consisted of about fifty four-room houses built on one-acre lots, but the name “Kendalltown” came to apply broadly to the African American residential area roughly bound by Two Notch Road on the east, the Southern Railroad on the west, Belt Line Drive on the north, and Elmwood Avenue on the south. Through the early twentieth century, Kendalltown was also home to many small farms which kept cows, goats, hogs, and poultry. The neighborhood’s namesake was the colorful Dr. Francis D. Kendall, from whom the initial land tract was purchased for development.

(Image courtesy of The State)

Dr. Kendall was a local Columbia physician, who for many years operated a large farm on the site of the Old Barhamville Academy. Kendall raised, among other livestock, an enormous and varied flock of fowl—ducks, geese, swans, chickens, and water fowl—that numbered over five hundred and won prizes at the State Fair.  Dr. and Mrs. Kendall were a cosmopolitan pair who posted notices of their far flung travels in The State, and hosted large, elaborate social events on their Barhamville Road property. Kendall also distinguished himself in the local crime blotter, caught selling illegal narcotics from his downtown Richland Drug Company in 1916. The Kendall family remained prominent in the Barhamville area and still held property there well into the 1950s.

Barhamville-Kendalltown

Kendalltown

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