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  1. Hollywood-Rose Hill Tudor Revival Style House 212 South Edisto Avenue
  2. Hollywood-Rose Hill New Opportunities for Investment Southwest Corner of Heyward Street & South Waccamaw Avenue
  3. Hollywood-Rose Hill Colonial Revival Style Houses 101-129 South Waccamaw Avenue
  4. Hollywood-Rose Hill William Davis Melton Tugaloo & South Waccamaw Avenues
  5. Hollywood-Rose Hill Rose Hill School/A.C. Moore School 320 South Waccamaw Avenue
  6. Hollywood-Rose Hill American Foursquare House Form 320 South Edisto Avenue
  7. Hollywood-Rose Hill Development of Rose Hill 219-229 South Edisto Avenue
  8. Hollywood-Rose Hill Former Home of Governor Duncan Clinch Heyward 101 South Edisto Avenue
  9. Hollywood-Rose Hill Murray-Rice-Moon House 1842 Heyward Street
  10. Hollywood-Rose Hill Aladdin Kit House 201 South Saluda Avenue
  11. Hollywood-Rose Hill Rose Hill Presbyterian Church 229 South Saluda Avenue
  12. Hollywood-Rose Hill Site of Rose Hill Greenhouses 200 Block of South Gregg Street
  13. Hollywood-Rose Hill Hollywood & Rose Hill Boundary South Gregg Street
  14. Hollywood-Rose Hill Site of "Rose Hill" House 1716 Heyward Street
  15. Hollywood-Rose Hill J. Carroll Johnson House 102 Southwood Drive
  16. Hollywood-Rose Hill Dutch Colonial Style House 111 Southwood Drive
  17. Hollywood-Rose Hill Duplex/Triplex/Quadplex 200 Block of South Pickens Street
  18. Hollywood-Rose Hill Bungalow House Form 230 South Bull Street
  19. Hollywood-Rose Hill Development of Hollywood Southwood Drive
  20. Hollywood-Rose Hill Cottage House Form 1716 Maplewood Drive
  21. Hollywood-Rose Hill Site of Piggly Wiggly 2001 Rosewood Drive
  22. Hollywood-Rose Hill Cock n Bull Pub-Grille 326 South Edisto Avenue
  23. Hollywood-Rose Hill Site of Former Community Store 224 South Saluda Avenue
  24. Hollywood-Rose Hill Trolley Service 1800-1900 Block of Heyward Street
  25. Hollywood-Rose Hill Division of Hollywood-Rose Hill from Wales Garden Heyward Street
  26. Hollywood-Rose Hill Recent Infill 226 South Edisto Avenue
  27. Hollywood-Rose Hill Full Gospel Church 1401 Rosewood Drive
  28. Hollywood-Rose Hill USC in Neighborhood USC in Neighborhood

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Tudor Revival Style House

Image courtesy Laura Guobaitis

Crafted in a style also called Medieval Revival, this cottage incorporates a number of elements more commonly labeled Tudor Revival. Features include half-timbering – actual or faux, as in the case of this house – and a high-pitched roof. Other common characteristics include tall, small-paned windows and a prominent cross gable. Cottages and bungalows, often incorporating revival style details, were among the most numerous housing forms found within Columbia’s earliest suburbs and remain a staple of those communities today.

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Tudor Revival Style House

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

New Opportunities for Investment

Advertisements in The State newspaper reveal developers’ efforts to draw Columbians to the area south of the city’s center. Early companies settled Rose Hill in several stages; Herbert Ebenezer Wells and William T. Rowland of Wells-Rowland Realty sold the first lots in the northwest portion of the neighborhood. Later, in 1918, W. D. Melton sold parcels south of Wells-Rowland. Holly Realty Company, for whom Hollywood was named, began to develop the community west of Rose Hill the following decade.

A host of realty companies participated in the development of the Rose Hill and Hollywood neighborhoods. Comprised on enterprising business partnerships, these businesses often competed with companies developing Columbia’s other first generation or inner-ring suburbs.

Wells-Rowland Realty Company

In 1913, Cotton executive Herbert Ebenezer Wells and William T. Rowland, a businessman from Sumter, South Carolina, chartered the Wells-Rowland Realty Company, which became one of two entities primarily responsible for the first stage of lot sales in Rose Hill.

Advertisements within The State newspaper boasted that Rowland could complete a home in less than one month and indicated that “only the best class of citizens” would soon be purchasing land within Rose Hill. Another classified described one parcel as “Nice Lot roomy home, dandy location, on streetcar line, paved, best street, suburb of Columbia.” Oral history suggests that this new development was a little too far from the city center, however, as some early residents declared their hesitancy to live “in the country.”

Later, Wells-Rowland Realty advertisements sought to counter these concerns by promoting Rose Hill on the basis of reliable transportation. “A car line to Rose Hill in the immediate future is a practical certainty,” one declared because “it is now being put into Wales Garden, only a few steps away.”

Hyatt Land and Investment Company

Hyatt Land and Investment Company also participated in the early development of Rose Hill, selling lots in the area bound north by Heyward Street, west by Gregg Street, east by Edisto Avenue, and south by property owned by the Stork family. Because the lots were so small – most were only 20 feet wide – many investors purchased multiple lots.

The Palmetto Realty Company

The Palmetto Realty Company was chartered in 1921, a full six years after Wells-Rowland and Hyatt had launched the development of Rose Hill. Palmetto Realty, however, reportedly built a number of homes in Rose Hill as well as in the area north of Lower (Heyward) Street, Whales Garden. Mallard R. Bagnal teamed up with W.P. Etchenson and J.F. Bailey to establish the realty company. At the time, Bagnal and Bailey also owned and operated a lumber and building materials company (that appears to have been located, at one time, off Elmwood Avenue). By 1923, Bagnal and Bailey appear to have dissolved, but Palmetto Realty Company remained intact under the direction of J. F. Bailey.

The Holly Realty Company

The area south of the city limits was once property owned by the Stork family. Martin Stork, one of Columbia’s first florists/greenhouse owners and son to the land’s original owner, Abram Stork, Sr., sold the entire area that became Hollywood to the United Realty Company, which granted lot deeds to the Holly Realty Company. R.L. Hollowell and J.F. Bailey, who was also a builder and involved in the Palmetto Realty Company, owned Holly Realty, the sole developer of Hollywood. Apparently, Holly Realty coordinated lot sales and in many instances, commissioned the architect and the construction of the house.

Images courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

Hollywood-Rose Hill

New Opportunities for Investment

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Colonial Revival Style Houses

Image courtesy Laura Guobaitis

Rose Hill’s initial boundaries with neighboring Wales Garden were not as clearly defined as today. This row of residences illustrates the fluidity of those early boundaries. Of a scale common to houses within Wales Garden, properties on the western side of this block are noticeably different from those across the street, which are more in keeping with Rose Hill’s self-proclaimed identity as a “bungalow community.” Celebrating the simplicity of 18th- and early 19th-century Georgian and Federal style architecture, the Colonial Revival style is defined by balance and symmetry – characteristics not often found in bungalows.

Residences within the 100 block of South Waccamaw seem to have made their appearance years after much of the area between South Gregg Street and South Edisto Avenue had been established. Not until 1940 did Columbia City Directories list addresses on the east side of the street. In that year, 112 was recorded as vacant; 116 was the home of Hazel Stuckey of Stuckey Bros. Furniture and Lumber companies; meanwhile, 120 was noted as the home of Merton Myers of Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company.

Image courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Colonial Revival Style Houses

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

William Davis Melton

Image courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

Credited with developing part of Rose Hill, lawyer and entrepreneur W. D. Melton began purchasing land in the Wales Garden and College Place neighborhoods as early as 1895. With the sale of two lots in 1918 to A.B. Warren and Mitsuo Tokunaga, former employees of Rose Hill Greenhouses, Melton established Liberty Realty. Though Melton died in 1926, his wife, Netta, continued to sell lots in the neighborhood and resided there for a time during the 1930s at 131 South Waccamaw. Melton’s efforts to develop adjacent neighborhoods may explain similarities between the communities.

William Davis Melton

A clever attorney, businessman and entrepreneur, W.D. Melton played an important role in developing Columbia’s early suburbs, including the Hollywood/Rose Hill community. Melton “sold” the land where Rose Hill Presbyterian Church stands to the church for five dollars. Melton never lived in Hollywood/Rose Hill, but appears to have lived near the University of South Carolina at both 1222 Senate Street and, later, 1602 Pendleton Street. Before his death in 1926, Melton was appointed president of the University of South Carolina, though he served less than four years in the position.

August Kohn

As this February 1914 plat indicates, journalist and businessman August Kohn joined W. D. Melton in efforts to develop the final section of the Rose Hill neighborhood. Born in 1868, educated in Orangeburg, South Carolina and New York City schools, Kohn went on to graduate with honors from South Carolina College in 1889. Kohn is perhaps best known for his work as a journalist, a career in which his prowess led to his being described as one of the most “capable and prolific” reporters in South Carolina. Among his notable endeavors, Kohn served as president of the Tree of Life Congregation in Columbia for 25 years, amassed a significant collection of South Carolina-related books, pamphlets, and ephemera, and worked to develop the economic interests of his city and state. August Kohn passed in 1930.

Image courtesy Safran’s Antiques

Hollywood-Rose Hill

William Davis Melton

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Rose Hill School/A.C. Moore School

Students in Mrs. Willis’ 5th-grade class, date undetermined
Image courtesy A.C. Moore Elementary School

Rose Hill School – the predecessor to A.C. Moore School – was originally established at the corner of Saluda Avenue and Rosewood Drive about 1911. When students outgrew the original two-story brick building, construction began on a new school located farther east on Rosewood Drive between South Waccamaw and South Etiwan avenues. Opened in 1930, this new school, renamed in honor of educational administrator Andrew Charles Moore, featured seven classrooms constructed with materials donated by Southern Lumber Company and Columbia Company.

A.C. Moore Elementary School

Currently, 350 students ranging from pre-kindergarten through fifth grade are enrolled at A.C. Moore Elementary School. With a student body whose members come from over twelve countries, this neighborhood landmark carries a reputation for diversity and promotes its motto of “Meet the World at A.C. Moore.” Notable students whose educational foundation was established at A.C. Moore include Nobel Prize winner and chemist Dr. Kary Mullis and celebrated artist Jasper Johns.

Biography of A.C. Moore

The namesake of A.C. Moore Elementary School, Andrew Charles Moore was the eldest son of State Representative and Senator Thomas J. Moore. Attending mostly rural schools as a young man, Moore graduated from South Carolina College (today’s University of South Carolina) with honors. Afterward, he spent over ten years teaching and overseeing schools in both South Carolina and Alabama. He returned to academia in 1898 to further his education. Two years later, in 1900, Moore graduated from the University of Chicago with a graduate degree in biology. The same year, Moore was appointed to the Board of School Commissioners for Columbia City Schools and remained in that position until his death in 1928. He also served South Carolina College as the chair of the Biology Department and Dean of Faculty.

This detail excerpt from the 1928 Tomlinson Map of Columbia indicates the location of Rose Hill School, the predecessor to today’s A.C. Moore Elementary, which opened in 1930. Also of interest is the irregular block sizes found within the then-recently developed suburb.

Image courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Rose Hill School/A.C. Moore School

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

American Foursquare House Form

Image courtesy Laura Guobaitis

Defined by its cube-like shape, the American Foursquare was a popular housing form during the earliest decades of the 20th century. Because of its size and layout, “Foursquares” were abundant in middle-class suburbs as one of a number of new housing forms erected in the wake of innovative building technologies. Like this house, most were generally two-and-a-half stories high with a four-room floor plan and porch extending the width of the structure.

Hollywood-Rose Hill

American Foursquare House Form

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Development of Rose Hill

One of the first recorded plans to develop the newly designated Rose Hill suburb was a 1914 plat drawn by M.Goode Homes for the Rose Hill Development Company. Though subsequent plats were drawn in preparation for lot sales in following years, features like gridded streets comparable to other Columbia suburbs and kit homes from popular catalogs quickly made their appearance. The earliest blocks in the heart of the neighborhood, for instance, contained numerous bungalows like these, lending legitimacy to Rose Hill’s nickname, “the bungalow community.”

Claiming quickly selling lots and offering paid round trip rail tickets to anyone purchasing plots within Rose Hill, the Wells-Roland Realty Company ran illustrated advertisements within The State newspaper that featured the neighborhood’s trademark housing form – the bungalow.

Designed for occupants with middle-class incomes, Rose Hill’s residences were modest, when compared with the larger, often more elaborate, houses to the north in Wales Garden and University Hill.

Early residents of 219 South Edisto Avenue speak to the neighborhood’s trend toward middle-income citizens. For instance, the 1925 Columbia City Directory indicates that Russell H. Acree, a secretary for the South Carolina Cotton Seed Crushers Association resided there. Fifteen years later, the property was home to Lynn S. Tomkins, a clerk for the Southern Railway system. As late as 1950, 221 South Edisto was inhabited by a farmer, perhaps a feature of Rose Hill’s proximity at that time to undeveloped land.

Image courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

Designed as references for determining insurance rates, Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps offer detailed snapshots of buildings within communities. Recording not only building composition, number of stories, and footprints, these maps also illustrate the relationship of individual structures to neighboring buildings, roads, and utilities, such as water mains. By comparing earlier editions of maps with later versions, the growth of neighborhoods, as well as changes made to existing buildings, becomes obvious.

This excerpt from the 1956 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map illustrates the size of houses standing along South Edisto Avenue decades after the neighborhood’s initial development in the 1920s. Unlike so many houses built today that feature attached or integrated garages, during the early 20th-century such amenities were virtually unknown. Instead, developers erected garages to the rear of houses so that the importance, and in most cases the architectural impact, of the residence was not overshadowed by what was considered a building of secondary importance.

Image courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

Francis Clarke shares the tradition behind the name "Rose Hill."

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Development of Rose Hill

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Former Home of Governor Duncan Clinch Heyward

Image courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

A former rice planter, businessman and Governor of South Carolina (1903 until 1907), Heyward retired to Columbia’s growing Rose Hill neighborhood, where he lived from 1929 until 1932. Interestingly, Lower Street, the former southern boundary to the city of Columbia and northern border for the neighborhood, was renamed Heyward Street by the time Heyward moved from the neighborhood. Oral lore maintains that it was changed in honor of Governor Heyward’s community presence.

D. C. Heyward Biography

Born June 24, 1864, in Richland County, South Carolina, Duncan Clinch Heyward established himself during his early years as a Lowcountry rice planter. In 1903, Heyward was elected governor after previous, if minor, involvement in South Carolina politics. The record indicates that he was selected as a non-controversial candidate with no strong political affiliation. Despite mild political inclinations, Heyward nonetheless won a bid for reelection the following year. His time in office was spent promoting education and expanding the general interests of the state. After completing his tenure in 1907, Heyward worked to improve Lowcountry rice cultivation, but returned to various business schemes in Columbia after 1911. A mainstay in his professional repertoire, Heyward eventually to returned rice cultivation by writing and publishing Seed from Madagascar, a study of South Carolina’s rice customs. In 1913, he was appointed a tax collector for the Federal Internal Revenue by President Woodrow Wilson, and by 1915, Heyward is listed as residing at 1 Gibbes Court and later 1800 Senate Street. Heyward died January 23, 1943 in Columbia while living at 1608 College Street, where he settled eight years earlier.

 

Image courtesy Laura Guobaitis

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Former Home of Governor Duncan Clinch Heyward

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Murray-Rice-Moon House

Image courtesy Robbie McClam

Designed by J. Carroll Johnson, one of Columbia’s most renowned residential architects, this Dutch Colonial Revival house stands at the neighborhood’s South Saluda entry point. Recently, the circa-1921 residence underwent remodeling that involved an addition to its west elevation that resulted in a balanced front façade. This extensive project received an historic preservation award in 2010 in recognition for its sensitive rehabilitation, which retained the integrity of the house’s historic character while supplying its current owners with greater living space.

According to current owners Steve and Kathie Moon, their recently rehabilitated residence was built in 1921 for the Murray family. Tradition claims the reason why the property sits so close to Saluda Avenue is because the original owners initially wanted to build their Dutch Colonial house with a Saluda Avenue address. Their plans rejected because the building was not made of brick, they fronted the house on Heyward (then Lower) Street but situated it as close to Saluda as possible so passersby could still see it from the family’s more desired address. Fortunately, this original positioning left room to create the property’s recent addition.

Following the Murray family’s ownership in the 1940s, Emert Rice, the proprietor of Rice Music House on Devine Street, and his wife Nancy purchased the property. Ownership changed again in 1994 when the Moon family made the address its home. Fifteen years later, the family enlisted the services of local architect Robbie McClam who rendered an architecturally sympathetic addition that enlarged the house to the west, but maintained the integrity of J. Carroll Johnson’s original design. Exemplifying the impact of sensitive rehabilitations that respect historic structures, this project received an historic preservation award from Historic Columbia Foundation in 2010.

Images courtesy the Moon family

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Murray-Rice-Moon House

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Aladdin Kit House

Image courtesy Clarke Library, Central Michigan University

Suburbanization within the United States during the early 20th century prompted a unique housing trend – kit homes. Featuring ready cut lumber and a menu of design and finish details, kits were produced by such companies as the North American Construction Company, known now as the Aladdin Company, and sold through catalogues. The Rose Hill neighborhood features at least 38 identified Aladdin kit homes, including this two-story bungalow, marketed as the Shadow Lawn.

Standardization of lumber processing maximized the volume of building components from raw materials while minimizing waste common to more traditional construction methods. Such residences were cheaper to build and less expensive to buy. Well before our contemporary interest in green issues, kit homes made financial and environmental sense.

Detailed “exploded views” of floor plans within catalogs included suggested layouts for furnishings and decorative treatments. Combined with color renderings, these illustrations proved effective marketing tools for developers keen on real-estate speculation and individuals interested in overseeing the construction of their own homes. Shown here is how Aladdin’s Shadow Lawn could appear if a potential buyer needed direction in its interior treatment.

Within recent memory, the Hollywood-Rose Hill neighborhood lost one of its Aladdin kit homes that once stood on the northeast corner of Kiawah and Edisto avenues. An example of The Plaza model, shown here in an excerpt the company’s 1917 catalog this property was not destroyed but rather relocated to another neighborhood off of Garner’s Ferry Road.

Images courtesy Clarke Library, Central Michigan University

Architect Maryellyn Cannizzaro uncovers the history of Aladdin Kit Homes in Rose Hill.

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Aladdin Kit House

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Rose Hill Presbyterian Church

Image courtesy Rose Hill Presbyterian Church

While its current sanctuary was built in 1920, Rose Hill Presbyterian Church’s congregation traces its roots within the neighborhood to 1915. In February of that year, the Christian Endeavor Movement held “Christian Endeavor Week” in Columbia, establishing seven societies throughout the city, one of which was in Rose Hill. That May, near the Rose Hill School, the fledgling church rented a “community house” whose rooms it transformed into places for children’s classes, cooking and sewing classes, as well as a space for meetings.

With area residences for their backdrop, leaders of Rose Hill Presbyterian Church pose for an unidentified photographer during the 1930s.

Image courtesy Rose Hill Presbyterian Church

Francis Clarke recalls activities for Depression-era teenagers at Rose Hill Presbyterian Church.

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Rose Hill Presbyterian Church

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Site of Rose Hill Greenhouses

Image courtesy Sandra Stork Phaup

Before becoming a suburb, Rose Hill was known for greenhouses established by the Stork family. From its “glass-covered houses” the family sold “cut flowers and plants” as early as 1900. During the 1910s, Mitsuo Tokunaga, a native of Nagasaki, Japan, became involved in the business. In 1918, he became an independent florist whose eventual success eclipsed that of his former employer. Today, the land on which the Stork family’s early horticultural enterprise once stood is occupied by Hollywood Park and six 1960s-era apartment buildings.

An Eye-Witness Account of Rose Hill Greenhouses

Listing different plants including “field grown” roses, chrysanthemums, carnations, privet hedges, ornamental plants, fruit trees, and even “landscape gardening,” advertisements within the classified section of The State newspaper throughout 1900 reveal the Stork family’s horticultural endeavors. In 1902, a representative of The State and “an experienced florist and horticulturalist,” by the name of Price, visited the family’s greenhouses at Rose Hill, then-owned by Martin and Abram Stork, Jr. Described as featuring “various divisions of nurseries and flower gardens” and as having thousands of “plants and roses of the ‘hardier variety,” the site’s “glass-covered houses” covering “thousands of square feet” held “multitudes of sweet scented roses and carnations of the choicest varieties,” and “innumerable’ other types of flowers, palms, and ferns,” all superiorly irrigated by water “supplied from an elevated tank, which is kept constantly filled from a near by stream, being forced up by a hydraulic engine, which is part of the plant.”

Rose Hill Greenhouses became a staple in Columbia, and the Stork family ventured further into the horticultural business by purchasing another greenhouse in 1911. Established opposite Hyatt Park by Miss Annie Wittvogel, who had operated the facility since at least 1903, the Stork family’s acquisition was comprised of six large greenhouses that serviced the growing Eau Claire community north of Columbia and was accessed by the city’s streetcar line.

The family’s greenhouses prospered by supplying flowers for debutante balls and weddings, and offering seasonal specials such as Easter lilies in April, Christmas flowers in December, and bulbs, seed, and even lawn grass in the spring.

Early advertisements for the Stork family’s greenhouses included eye-catching illustrations, such as this run in the July 11, 1907 edition of The State newspaper.

Image courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

Born in Nagasaki, Japan in 1889, Mitsuo Tokunaga immigrated into the United States in 1909, briefly staying in Charleston. According to his descendants, with ambitions to go to New York, he traveled as far as Columbia on foot, and decided to stay. Shortly after arriving, Tokunaga began working for the Stork family at its greenhouses in Rose Hill. There, the aspiring businessman mastered the floral business.

Soon afterward, Tokunaga married Myrtle Wagstaff and entered into partnership with A.B. Warren, when the two fellow Stork family employees purchased two lots for $3,000 in early July of 1918 from developer William Davis Melton. Under new management, Rose Hill Greenhouses was renamed Wales Garden Greenhouses. Ultimately, the partnership proved short-lived. By 1920, Tokunaga had established his own floral business, known as Shandon Greenhouses, on Millwood Avenue. According to Columbia City Directories, Wales Garden Greenhouses remained in operation until 1967.

For the next four decades Tokunaga’s business flourished, eventually growing to include 15 greenhouses that resulted in his enterprise becoming one of the largest floral wholesale companies in the Southeast. All of Tokunaga’s eight children worked in some capacity in the family’s diversified floral business that came to include the Art Flower Shop in Cayce; Wales Garden Greenhouses; Shandon Wholesale; Riverside Flower Shop; Tokunaga Wholesale; and Shandon Greenhouses. Upon his death in 1961, Tokunaga was remembered as an astute businessman and a respected Columbian. A tangible reminder of his family’s floral legacy remains today with the Japanese pagoda-inspired building at 2827 Millwood Avenue, formerly home to Shandon Greenhouses.

Tokunaga’s business savvy resulted in his business becoming a Columbia institution and one of the Southeast’s most successful wholesale florists. Shown here is the transplanted entrepreneur’s delivery truck as it appeared during the early 1920s.

Images courtesy Tokunaga family

The location and size of Wales Garden Greenhouses, outlined in red, was recorded with the 1956 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map. Outlined in blue is the location of the community’s playground, established on land donated by the neighborhood’s Rawls family.

Image courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

Thelma Rawls and Gail Rawls Jeter share how the late George Rawls enjoyed Rose Hill Park.

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Site of Rose Hill Greenhouses

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Hollywood & Rose Hill Boundary

Image courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

Houses along the eastern side of South Gregg Street, which run nearly unbroken from Heyward Street to Tugaloo and South Saluda Avenues, reveal the original boundary between the Rose Hill and Hollywood neighborhoods. Rose Hill’s smaller lots featuring modest bungalows and American Foursquares stand in stark contrast to Hollywood’s wider lots and larger residences lying to the west.

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Hollywood & Rose Hill Boundary

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Site of "Rose Hill" House

Image courtesy Sandra Stork Phaup

By 1895, grocer Abram Stork, Sr. had constructed a house outside the city limits on the south side of Lower Street (today’s Heyward Street), where he owned a large tract of land called “Rose Hill.” Newspaper announcements in 1910 refer to the Stork family home (shown her during a family wedding) as “Rose Hill,” and it was finally given the address of 1716 Lower Street, after the construction of other residences nearby. Following a stint as apartments and as the residence of other family members, this neighborhood landmark appears to have been demolished in 1973.

Rose Hill’s Stork Family

By 1895, German immigrant, Confederate veteran, and entrepreneur Abram Stork, Sr. and his descendants owned most of the land south of the city where Hollywood-Rose Hill came to be established. Involved in many different business pursuits, including saloons and liquor stores, grocery stores, and some real estate, this branch of the Stork family became known mostly for its greenhouses that were located on the family estate south of Lower Street.

Records indicate that Stork began his real-estate pursuits around 1888, at the same time he was operating a restaurant and saloon at 80 Richardson Street (today’s Main Street). It is believed that he acquired what would become the family’s large tract of land south of the city limits at this time. Before his wife, Marie, died that year, she had bore him six sons, John, Gustave, William, Martin, Abram Jr., and Frederick, and two daughters, Mary and Elisabeth. By February 1900, the family was operating Rose Hill Greenhouses on its land from which the enterprise derived its name.

A Rhine, Germany native, Abram Stork, Sr. immigrated into the United States in 1848 and became an important part of Columbia’s German community. Stork became an active member of Ebenezer Lutheran Church on Richland Street. During the Civil War he saw extensive combat, including action at Hilton Head, Second Manassas, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, and at the Battle of the Wilderness, where he was severely wounded. Following the war, Stork grew to be one of Columbia’s more successful businessmen.

The former location of the Stork estate is easily recognizable within the Map of Columbia, SC and Suburbs by Niernsee and LaMotte, City Engineers in 1895.

Images courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

Following the destruction of the Stork family’s 19th-century house in the early 1970s, prime real-estate within the Hollywood-Rose Hill neighborhood was ripe for redevelopment. What followed was the creation of a cul-de-sac, a design more commonly found within later 20th-century suburbs. Featuring a collection of Colonial Revival-inspired houses, the area is today known as William and Mary Court.

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Site of "Rose Hill" House

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

J. Carroll Johnson House

Image courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

With an architecture degree from the Armour Institute of Technology, Swedish-born John Carroll Johnson accepted a position with the Columbia firm of Wilson, Sompayrac, and Urquhart in 1910. During his first decade in Columbia, Johnson designed many public works as well as over 30 houses within the Hollywood and Rose Hill neighborhoods. Johnson planned his residence, completed in 1925, with the unique feature of an attached garage, a new trend that became more prevalent with the automobile age. The stoop’s turret-shaped roof is reminiscent of Norman architecture from which the gifted architect drew his inspiration

Within two years of his coming to Columbia and working with Wilson, Sompayrac, and Urquhart in 1910, Johnson established a partnership with Urquhart. This arrangement led to a number of important commissions including Columbia High School (1915) and South Caroliniana Library (wings in 1927 and 1928) to name just two.

Johnson’s legacy on residential design, while considerable within the Hollywood neighborhood, also reached into other Columbia neighborhoods, both in terms of new construction and in the rehabilitation of earlier buildings. Some of his most celebrated designs for new structures included commissions for the Senate Street house of Benjamin F. Taylor (1910-1912) and two houses for Dr. Robert E. Seibels in 1927 and 1933, respectively.

Image courtesy Andrew W. Chandler

The J. Carroll Johnson-designed home of local builder J. Stuart Rawls at 224 S. Gregg stands shrouded in snow, circa 1958.

Image courtesy Thelma Rawls

One of J. Carroll Johnson’s most impressive accomplishments was his design of 21 Heathwood Circle for physician Robert E. Seibels in 1927.

Image courtesy Bob Seibels

Andrew Chandler summarizes J. Carroll Johnson’s distinctive style.

Hollywood-Rose Hill

J. Carroll Johnson House

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Dutch Colonial Style House

Image courtesy Laura Guobaitis

Architecture revival styles of the early 20th century drew their inspiration from a wide variety of earlier design movements. A category of the Colonial Revival style, Dutch Colonial Revival houses, such as this circa-1925 residence, featured a highly distinctive barn-like or gambrel roofline. Noteworthy among neighboring houses of architectural distinction, this property is among a number of this style erected within many of Columbia’s early suburbs.

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Dutch Colonial Style House

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Duplex/Triplex/Quadplex

During the early 20th century developers within both the downtown and Columbia’s suburbs embraced a new form of housing – purpose-built, multi-occupant residences. Such structures assumed different layouts, accommodating both individuals and families intent on living within certain neighborhoods, though not necessarily able or interested in purchasing individual houses. Examples of this housing trend are abundant within areas of the Hollywood-Rose Hill neighborhoods.

The volume of multi-family housing along South Pickens Street and the angle in which the road intersects streets within the remainder of Hollywood lying to the east is apparent in the 1956 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map. Outline in red are the two-story duplexes shown in the photograph.

Image courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Duplex/Triplex/Quadplex

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Bungalow House Form

Prized for its sensible floor plans and affordability, the bungalow was a popular house form among median income families during the early twentieth-century. This structure, for instance, was home to Irvin Chappel, a division manager for South Carolina Energy & Gas during the 1930s, and Jacob Shealy a manager of Dixie Home Store’s bakery during the 1950s. Though variations exist, bungalows generally stand one to one-and-a-half stores tall and are defined by horizontal lines and a low-pitched roof. Details such as exposed rafter tails and front or L-shaped porches are also common.

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Bungalow House Form

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Development of Hollywood

Image courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

Hollywood’s physical development differed from that of its neighbor to the east in a number of ways. Notable in the 1928 Tomlinson Map is the size of the blocks radiating out from South Gregg Street to the east. Designed to accommodate more graciously appointed residences, these parcels tended to be larger and oriented north to south as opposed to Rose Hill’s east to west layout. Of note, too, is the curvilinear nature of Southwood Drive, which was contoured to meet South Pickens Street’s diagonal orientation to the blocks lying to its east.

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Development of Hollywood

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Cottage House Form

Image courtesy Laura Guobaitis

Built about 1940, this one and one-half-story residence features characteristics commonly found within many revival style cottages of the era. Unlike the typically symmetrical layout of “Cape Cod” cottages, “Old World”-inspired cottages typically offer irregular layouts, a side porch, and roofs with multiple-cross-gables resulting in dynamic elevations. Other common elements include front-facing chimneys and brick veneer with decorative detailing.

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Cottage House Form

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Site of Piggly Wiggly

Image courtesy Helen Thomasson

Life within Columbia’s early suburbs required services similar to those found in abundance downtown. Commercial interests often bordered and occasionally were found within the residential developments that stretched beyond the confines of the city limits during the early 20th century. Grocery stores, drug stores, meat markets, and other necessities could be found within walking distance and, in some instances, not far from streetcar stops established by the Columbia Street Railway Company.

With the advent of supermarkets during the later 1940s and early 1950s, smaller stores experienced greater competition for patrons. The grand opening of a Piggly Wiggly supermarket in 1971 met the area’s growing needs while offering neighbors an informal meeting place to catch up on community issues. Taken before Rosewood Drive was widened, this aerial perspective of the store illustrates its proximity to residences standing to its north and east within the Hollywood-Rose Hill neighborhood. At 15,000 square feet, the Rosewood Drive Piggly Wiggly operated until August 24, 2002, at which time its once-impressive size could not compete with other, even larger stores located within driving distance from the neighborhood.

Franchise owner C. Hall Thomasson and his wife Helen pose in front of Rosewood Drive’s Piggly Wiggly supermarket on opening day in 1971. Following Mr. Thomasson’s death in August 2008, this World War II veteran and long-time community member was remembered for honesty and fairness in his business dealings.

Image courtesy Helen Thomasson

For three decades pedestrians and motorists along Rosewood Drive were met with the smiling iconic Piggly Wiggly pig of Thomasson’s supermarket.

Image courtesy Piggly Wiggly®

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Site of Piggly Wiggly

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Cock n Bull Pub-Grille

Image courtesy Laura Guobaitis

As with many folks whose neighborhoods border major thoroughfares, Hollywood-Rose Hill residents strive to find a balance between new development and maintaining their community’s residential character. Since Rosewood Drive’s widening in the early 1970s, many former houses have been put to commercial use. The latest example of this trend is this 1930s bungalow, a former single family home, once converted into a triplex, and now home to the Cock n Bull Pub-Grille, founded in 2007 at 2910 Rosewood Drive.

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Cock n Bull Pub-Grille

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Site of Former Community Store

Image courtesy Rose Hill Presbyterian Church

A tangible link to an early business found nestled within the neighborhood, rather than along its borders, still stands at the intersection of South Saluda and Kiawah avenues. The building’s form remains intact, though the structure’s façade has been modified from its original appearance. Interestingly, in its earliest years, this former store’s name, Wales Garden Grocery, suggested a stronger association with Hollywood-Rose Hill’s neighbor to the north. Shown here in the 1930s from perspective of the Front Lawn of Rose Hill Presbyterian Church, the community grocery once featured a prominent sign and awning. While no longer serving its initial purpose, the building nonetheless remains architecturally distinctive among the surrounding houses.

 Image courtesy Rose Hill Presbyterian Church

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Site of Former Community Store

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Trolley Service

Image courtesy Gloria Holman

Key to the development of Columbia’s first suburbs was the convenience of transportation to and from the city center. Connecting Hollywood-Rose Hill with downtown, the Columbia Electric Street and Suburban Railway and Electric Power Company ran a route from Harden Street down Saluda Avenue, terminating at Heyward Street. For a fare of five cents, patrons had reliable access to a variety of services from their new homes that lay just outside the city limits. In 1927, the city’s streetcar service was terminated, as buses and private cars had outpaced their competitor.

The holder of conductor’s badge #1 is pictured beside one of the city’s streetcars during the heyday of this bygone service.

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Trolley Service

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Division of Hollywood-Rose Hill from Wales Garden

Image courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

As the dividing line between two of Columbia’s earliest suburbs, Heyward Street separates Hollywood-Rose Hill from Wales Garden to the north. Established in 1912, two years before work commenced within Rose Hill, Wales Garden was named for businessman Edwin Wales Robertson, an original member of the City Development Corporation’s board of directors that was responsible for setting aside 80 acres of the Stork estate on which the upscale suburb was created. A three-year planning phase resulted in a nearly completed development featuring curbed and paved streets, an extension of the trolley line up Saluda Avenue to Heyward Street, and water and sewer pipes. This entire infrastructure was established before the first lot was sold in December of 1915. Residential construction continued until the mid-1940s as homeowners purchased multiple lots to accommodate house size, creating the varied lot size found throughout the neighborhood of Wales Garden.

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Division of Hollywood-Rose Hill from Wales Garden

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Recent Infill

Image courtesy Laura Guobaitis

Sympathetically designed new construction can enhance the vitality of neighboring residences within architecturally distinctive neighborhoods. The most successful infill often is based upon its ability to blend into the surrounding historic context visually, both in terms of scale and materials. Today, within Hollywood-Rose Hill stand examples of “neo-bungalows,” which draw their design inspiration from neighboring residences built over 70 years earlier.

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Recent Infill

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

Full Gospel Church

Image courtesy Laura Guobaitis

Image courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

Erected in 1951 for the congregation of Palmetto Baptist Church, this Rosewood Drive landmark was known one year later as Central Mission Baptist Church, the name it carried during the Sanborn Fire Insurance Company’s survey of the neighborhood in 1956, shown here. Owned by the Apostolic Doctrine Evangelical Church since 1982, this place of worship has buffered the Hollywood-Rose Hill neighborhood from Rosewood Drive for over half a century. Its presence, particularly as a corner property situated along two significant thoroughfares, reinforces the importance that long-standing landmarks often carry within neighborhoods.

Hollywood-Rose Hill

Full Gospel Church

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Hollywood-Rose Hill

USC in Neighborhood

Image courtesy South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

Athletic facilities for the University of South Carolina border Hollywood-Rose Hill to its west. For decades, these facilities have buffered the residential area from commercial development like that experienced along Rosewood Drive. Seen from the air, the size of the University’s land holdings becomes even more apparent.

Easily recognizable are Sarge Frye Field and the “Roundhouse,” long-time landmarks slated for demolition and replacement with new facilities.

Hollywood-Rose Hill

USC in Neighborhood

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