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  1. Robert Mills District West Whaley-Caughman House 1430 Blanding Street
  2. Robert Mills District West St. Paul’s Lutheran Church & Former Site of Hammond-Clarkson Mansion 1715 Bull Street
  3. Robert Mills District West Former site of “Little” House 1419 Blanding Street
  4. Robert Mills District West Northeast Corner of Blanding and Marion streets Northeast Corner of Blanding and Marion streets
  5. Robert Mills District West Site of Christ Church Site of Christ Church
  6. Robert Mills District West 1328 Blanding Street 1328 Blanding Street
  7. Robert Mills District West Dial-Willis-Heyward House 1329 Blanding Street
  8. Robert Mills District West Lucille Apartments 1321 Blanding Street
  9. Robert Mills District West Site of Boozer-Davis Cottage 1316 Blanding Street
  10. Robert Mills District West Ehrlich House 1315 Blanding Street
  11. Robert Mills District West Ladson Church 1720 Sumter Street
  12. Robert Mills District West 1301 Laurel Street 1301 Laurel Street
  13. Robert Mills District West 1305 Laurel Street 1305 Laurel Street
  14. Robert Mills District West Chambers-Coleman House 1331 Laurel Street
  15. Robert Mills District West 1330 Laurel Street 1330 Laurel Street
  16. Robert Mills District West 1813 Marion Street 1813 Marion Street
  17. Robert Mills District West 1819 Marion Street 1819 Marion Street
  18. Robert Mills District West DeBruhl-Marshall House 1401 Laurel Street
  19. Robert Mills District West 1400 Laurel Street 1400 Laurel Street
  20. Robert Mills District West 1404 Laurel Street 1404 Laurel Street
  21. Robert Mills District West 1410 Laurel Street 1410 Laurel Street
  22. Robert Mills District West Centennial Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church 1413 Laurel Street
  23. Robert Mills District West Shannon Smith Stuckey House 1422 Laurel Street
  24. Robert Mills District West Site of McMaster House 1429 Laurel Street
  25. Robert Mills District West 1809 Bull Street Middle of 1800 block of Bull Street
  26. Robert Mills District West 1825 Bull Street 1825 Bull Street
  27. Robert Mills District West Orchard House 1430 Richland Street
  28. Robert Mills District West The 1425 Inn 1425 Richland Street
  29. Robert Mills District West 1419 Richland Street 1419 Richland Street
  30. Robert Mills District West Site of Calvary Baptist Church Site of Calvary Baptist Church
  31. Robert Mills District West 1415 Richland Street 1415 Richland Street
  32. Robert Mills District West Mann-Simons Cottage 1403 Richland Street
  33. Robert Mills District West 1830 Marion Street 1830 Marion Street
  34. Robert Mills District West 1316-1328 Richland Street 1316-1328 Richland Street
  35. Robert Mills District West 1327 Richland Street 1327 Richland Street
  36. Robert Mills District West Ebenezer Lutheran Church 11301-1307 Richland Street
  37. Robert Mills District West Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church 1931 Sumter Street
  38. Robert Mills District West Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church 1931 Sumter Street
  39. Robert Mills District West 1929 Marion Street 1929 Marion Street
  40. Robert Mills District West 1925 Marion Street 1925 Marion Street
  41. Robert Mills District West 1905 Marion Street 1905 Marion Street
  42. Robert Mills District West Modjeska Monteith Simkins House 2025 Marion Street
  43. Robert Mills District West 1417 Calhoun Street 1417 Calhoun Street
  44. Robert Mills District West 1421 Calhoun Street 1421 Calhoun Street
  45. Robert Mills District West 1913 Bull Street 1913 Bull Street

1

Robert Mills District West

Whaley-Caughman House

When constructed in 1885, this former residence was one of Blanding Street’s more fashionable addresses. A restrained interpretation of Queen Anne style architecture, this building features a dramatic asymmetrical façade with an L-shaped porch, grouped columns, and bay windows.  During most of its time as a private residence, the property also contained office space for the doctors who lived there. Past owners, for whom the house is named, included otolaryngologist Michael Whaley and ophthalmologist Belton Caughman. Used as a boarding house in the 1960s, the property was adapted to commercial office use by 1982.

Robert Mills District West

Whaley-Caughman House

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2

Robert Mills District West

St. Paul’s Lutheran Church & Former Site of Hammond-Clarkson Mansion

The past two centuries have seen three different buildings on the northwest corner of Blanding and Bull streets.  The current Gothic Revival style sanctuary for St. Paul’s Lutheran Church dates to 1913, the year in which the congregation replaced its original circa-1886 structure. Originally occupying this lot from 1836 until its destruction during the city’s burning in 1865 was the former home of Governor James Henry Hammond, and later the Clarkson family. Considered one of Columbia’s grandest residences, this enormous house boasted 32 columns, reminiscent of a Louisiana plantation house.

Robert Mills District West

St. Paul’s Lutheran Church & Former Site of Hammond-Clarkson Mansion

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3

Robert Mills District West

Former site of “Little” House

Image courtesy Rudy Barnes

According to family tradition, planter aristocrat Thomas Boston Clarkson erected this Greek Revival-style residence in 1857 as a honeymoon cottage for his daughter Caroline and his new son-in-law Lemuel C. Clark. Relocated in 1974, the antebellum structure now rests on Kalmia Road in Columbia’s Sherwood Forest neighborhood.

Robert Mills District West

Former site of “Little” House

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4

Robert Mills District West

Northeast Corner of Blanding and Marion streets

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, Columbia, South Carolina, 1919, Courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C.

Mid-20th-century redevelopment throughout the neighborhood often times resulted in the loss of historic structures. The Sanborn Fire Insurance Map of 1919 illustrates the density of housing later erased for the construction of parking lots and commercial buildings.

Robert Mills District West

Northeast Corner of Blanding and Marion streets

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5

Robert Mills District West

Site of Christ Church

Image courtesy National Archives and Records Administration

Erected in 1858 to accommodate growing numbers of working-class Episcopalians, Christ Church met a fiery demise during the burning of Columbia in February 1865. Said to have rivaled nearby Trinity Church in size, the ruined Gothic Revival style sanctuary was recorded (pictured here) by George N. Bernard of Matthew Brady’s corps of Union Army photographers.

Robert Mills District West

Site of Christ Church

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6

Robert Mills District West

1328 Blanding Street

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, Columbia, South Carolina, 1888, Courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C.

Allowing us to reconstruct how buildings change over time, maps show the Heinitsh family’s considerable modifications to its Italianate style property between 1872 and 1919. With a two-story addition to the structure’s three-story tower, the front of the house was made symmetrical and received a new porch layout. By 1919, Dr. W.E. Heinitsh had established his pharmacy to the west of house, as depicted in the Sanborn Fire Insurance Map for that year.

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, Columbia, South Carolina, 1919, Courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C.

Robert Mills District West

1328 Blanding Street

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7

Robert Mills District West

Dial-Willis-Heyward House

Dial-Willis-Heyward House, circa-1900

Image courtesy Sonny Sims

Businessman George Louis Dial, whose Tozer Engine Works produced steam engines, had this sprawling house erected in 1886. Later owners included J.A. Willis and N. Barnwell Heyward, who maintained his doctor’s office within an addition to its Marion Street elevation.  Originally, the site was home to Massachusetts native Abraham Blanding. An educator, lawyer, and politician, Blanding is perhaps best remembered for his role in establishing Columbia’s first waterworks in 1820.

Robert Mills District West

Dial-Willis-Heyward House

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8

Robert Mills District West

Lucille Apartments

Image courtesy Columbia Housing Authority

Apartment living was a social movement throughout the United States during the 1910s through 1930s that offered a more private housing alternative to lower and middle income residents previously inhabiting boarding houses and hotels and to young, married and single men and women professionals who moved to the city for greater opportunity.

Robert Mills District West

Lucille Apartments

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9

Robert Mills District West

Site of Boozer-Davis Cottage

Former Location of Boozer-Davis Cottage

Image courtesy The R. L. Bryan Company

For over a century, a circa-1880 Italianate style cottage stood on this site. Of a popular post-Civil War design, this residence, named for the two families commonly associated with it, was relocated in 1984 to 1925 Pickens Street as historically sympathetic in-fill within the Robert Mills Historic District East.

Robert Mills District West

Site of Boozer-Davis Cottage

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10

Robert Mills District West

Ehrlich House

Blending the Italianate and Queen Anne styles of architecture, this Reconstruction-era house reflects the success of Edward Ehrlich, a notable Columbia businessman. The son of a German immigrant, Erhlich heavily modified the circa-1869 house in the 1880s to reflect his financial success and social aspirations. Notable changes included the addition of hand-tooled leather wall hangings and intricate interior woodwork rendered by Austrian artisans who constructed the Biltmore Estate.

Robert Mills District West

Ehrlich House

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11

Robert Mills District West

Ladson Church

One of Columbia’s oldest African-American congregations was organized as a separate but affiliated component of First Presbyterian Church in 1838. Today’s structure, built in 1896 as a replacement for an earlier church destroyed by fire, exemplifies the Romanesque Revival style, which was a popular architectural expression of the late 19th century. When finished, the building had wooden pyramidal towers and a belfry, features later replaced by brick towers in 1940.

Robert Mills District West

Ladson Church

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12

Robert Mills District West

1301 Laurel Street

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, Columbia, South Carolina, 1919, Courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C.

Post-World War II development affected downtown Columbia, often erasing or considerably changing earlier buildings. Designed in the Streamline Moderne style, this circa-1948 commercial building features horizontal lines and incorporates modern building materials that reflect the excitement of the machine age. Before accommodating Fred H. Medlin’s used car business, 1301 Laurel Street was home to various residents, including a seamstress, police officer, and railway clerk who lived in a circa-1880 cottage.

Robert Mills District West

1301 Laurel Street

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13

Robert Mills District West

1305 Laurel Street

C. Drie, Bird’s Eye View of the City of Columbia, South Carolina, 1872, Courtesy of Library of Congress

C. Drie’s 1872 Birdseye Map of Columbia depicts an early cottage at 1305 Laurel Street, which may be the present structure drastically altered in the 1940s for commercial purposes. The property was a residence until the 1930s, when it became a doctor’s office and then a chemistry laboratory for Hahn Laboratories in 1948. The 1950s and 1960s saw multiple businesses operating from the property with six different businesses listed there in the 1957 City Directory.

Robert Mills District West

1305 Laurel Street

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14

Robert Mills District West

Chambers-Coleman House

One of the neighborhood’s more elaborate former residences, this Queen Anne-style building was adapted in 1979 as a law office by Jack and Shirley Curry and Lee Jones. Highlights of this circa-1898 structure include multiple gables, or triangular projections, and detailed interior and exterior woodwork.

Robert Mills District West

Chambers-Coleman House

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15

Robert Mills District West

1330 Laurel Street

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, Columbia, South Carolina, 1888, Courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C.

Built by members of the prominent Ehrlich family, owners of a shoe and boot store for several generations, this property has been a Laurel Street landmark since 1884. Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps indicate that the building has changed over time losing features, such as two two-story porches and receiving additions between 1898 and 1904.

In this 1919 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map, note the alterations made to the house since 1888.

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, Columbia, South Carolina, 1919, Courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C.

Robert Mills District West

1330 Laurel Street

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16

Robert Mills District West

1813 Marion Street

Found in greater numbers throughout Columbia’s early suburbs, bungalows were a popular housing form from 1910 to 1940. On occasion, bungalows are found in older neighborhoods, having replaced earlier residences. Craftsman style bungalows, like this one built by 1932, tend to be one to one-and-one-half story houses dominated by low-pitched roofs and façade-width porches. Detailed columns on brick piers, louvered attic vents beneath gables, and exposed rafter tails are other common elements of the bungalow.

Robert Mills District West

1813 Marion Street

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17

Robert Mills District West

1819 Marion Street

Built about 1891 as a single-family residence, this two-story, wood-frame structure is a modest interpretation of the Queen Anne style, popular in the United States from 1870 until 1900. The one-story porch was added circa-1925 and reflects the more rustic characteristics of Craftsman style architecture, typically found in bungalow forms.

Robert Mills District West

1819 Marion Street

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18

Robert Mills District West

DeBruhl-Marshall House

Similar in style to the circa-1823 Robert Mills House, this mansion, named for its original owner, Lowcountry planter Jesse DeBruhl, was erected in 1820 after a design by a still-unidentified architect. Typically featuring temple-like front facades, residences of this style resembled ancient Greek and Roman public architecture. Serving briefly as headquarters for Confederate General Joseph Johnston, this landmark property was set on fire during Union occupation in February 1865 but escaped major damage. 

Robert Mills District West

DeBruhl-Marshall House

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19

Robert Mills District West

1400 Laurel Street

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, Columbia, South Carolina, 1919, Courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C.

A two-story single-family dwelling occupied this lot from at least 1898 until 1919, according to Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps from those years. Although the apartment building was not constructed until the 1930s, the property was listed in the Columbia City Directories as being owned by the Wallace Family, which appears to have begun renting the site by the 1910s.

Robert Mills District West

1400 Laurel Street

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20

Robert Mills District West

1404 Laurel Street

Due to their often typically larger size, former residences within the district have lent themselves well to adaptation as offices. Built about 1900, this structure blends details found within Italianate and Queen Anne style architecture. Italianate characteristics include the recessed entryway marked by a classical arch, bracketed eaves, and the classically columned façade-width porch. Meanwhile, the building’s asymmetrical façade, gables and patterned shingles are tenets of the later Queen Anne style.

Robert Mills District West

1404 Laurel Street

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21

Robert Mills District West

1410 Laurel Street

This property served as a single-family residence from its construction around 1900 until the 1960s, when it was turned into two apartments. The trend of subdividing older houses into multi-occupant residences began after World War II within many of Columbia’s inner-city historic neighborhoods.  Once home to clerks, mechanics, engineers, and gardeners, this Victorian-era building was rehabilitated for commercial use about 1978.

Robert Mills District West

1410 Laurel Street

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22

Robert Mills District West

Centennial Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church

A landmark property within the district since its completion in 1954, Centennial A.R.P. Church is the second sanctuary to be erected by the congregation, whose name commemorates the Associate Reformed Synod of the Carolinas’ founding in Winnsboro on May 9, 1803. The current Greek Revival style building replaced an earlier Romanesque Revival designed brick structure that had stood on this site since 1902.

Robert Mills District West

Centennial Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church

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23

Robert Mills District West

Shannon Smith Stuckey House

One of the district’s more distinctive buildings erected between 1885 and 1890 stands out for its blend of architectural details and materials. Trading red brick for the more traditional wood siding found within its Queen Annen style counterparts, this former residence boasts notable elements such as colored multi-paned windows and Eastlake style geometric porch railings. Derelict for many years, the house underwent rehabilitation in 2001 by its current owners and is now used for offices.

Robert Mills District West

Shannon Smith Stuckey House

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24

Robert Mills District West

Site of McMaster House

Erected about 1853 by Colonel Fitz McMaster, the McMaster House, one of Columbia’s well-known social landmarks, stood on the northwest corner of Laurel and Bull streets until its demolition about 1978. Like many of its contemporary antebellum neighbors, the property featured notable gardens.

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, Columbia, South Carolina, 1919, Courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C.

Robert Mills District West

Site of McMaster House

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25

Robert Mills District West

1809 Bull Street

Popular in the United States from 1880 through 1940, Colonial Revival architecture celebrates the simplicity of 18th- and early 19th-century Georgian and Federal-style structures. Unlike their early predecessors, revival buildings often differ in subtle ways such as size and layout of windows, roof materials, and brick styles.

Robert Mills District West

1809 Bull Street

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26

Robert Mills District West

1825 Bull Street

Margaret Grace Squier, the daughter-in-law of one of Columbia’s most important 19th-century cabinetmakers, moved into this cottage in 1904 following the death of her husband, William Henry Squier. She lived here until 1922, when Dr. J.L. Thompson was listed at this address. After a brief vacancy in the late 1950s, B. Jack Funderburk occupied the house, where he lived and ran his business, Mutual Dental Supplies.

Robert Mills District West

1825 Bull Street

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27

Robert Mills District West

Orchard House

William E. Orchard, a longstanding professor of music at the Columbia Female Academy and a popular local musician, had this house built in 1875. Characteristic of Italianate architecture, which was popular from 1840 through 1880, this building features a two-story façade-width front porch with decorative wooden brackets. Its cast iron balustrade, or railings, tended to be found on houses constructed before the Civil War.

Robert Mills District West

Orchard House

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28

Robert Mills District West

The 1425 Inn

Drawing design inspiration from its historic neighbors, this inn has been a Richland Street destination since 1992. According to the Sanborn Fire Insurance Map of 1919, a single-family house, identical to the former residence at 1419 Richland Street, originally stood on this site.

Robert Mills District West

The 1425 Inn

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29

Robert Mills District West

1419 Richland Street

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, Columbia, South Carolina, 1919, Courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C.

Featuring an L-shaped plan popular in the asymmetrical style of Victorian architecture, this circa-1897 building features many delicate details, such as ornate brackets and turned balusters and porch posts. Possibly constructed by Reverend James D. Tadlock, the house was lived in from 1901 until 1922 by Revered R.C. Reed, a professor at Columbia Theological Seminary. By 1932, the property had been converted into three separate apartments. Thirty years later, it contained seven apartments and was listed under the name of "Mrs. Dessie M. Gregory Boarding House," which soon expanded into 1417 Richland Street.

Robert Mills District West

1419 Richland Street

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30

Robert Mills District West

Site of Calvary Baptist Church

Following the Civil War, African Americans enjoyed freedom of worship for the first time and began to form congregations separate from white churches. Calvary Baptist, under the leadership of Reverend Samuel Johnson, a former slave, was created in the basement of Celia Mann’s home (today the Mann-Simons Cottage). Purchasing a lot in 1875 on Richland Street across from the cottage, Calvary’s congregation began construction of its official church building that same year. This structure was razed to make way for later redevelopment.

Robert Mills District West

Site of Calvary Baptist Church

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31

Robert Mills District West

1415 Richland Street

C. Drie, Bird’s Eye View of the City of Columbia, South Carolina, 1872, Courtesy of Library of Congress

Constructed about 1845, this two-story frame building was the home of Mary McDonald when C. Drie rendered his Birdseye Map of Columbia in 1872. While originally situated on an entire acre, or one-fourth of the block, by 1883, the parcel appears to have been divided in half to make way for development on Calhoun Street.

Robert Mills District West

1415 Richland Street

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32

Robert Mills District West

Mann-Simons Cottage

One of only a few houses in Columbia once owned by free blacks during the antebellum period, this structure is the last remaining building among several that were eventually owned by descendants of Celia Mann, a formerly enslaved Charlestonian midwife. Later generations owned the house from the time of her death in 1867 until 1970.  Considered a Columbia Cottage, this one-and-a-half story building was a prevalent housing form from 1840 to 1900. Today, the Mann-Simons Cottage is operated as an historic house museum under the stewardship of Historic Columbia Foundation.

Robert Mills District West

Mann-Simons Cottage

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33

Robert Mills District West

1830 Marion Street

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, Columbia, South Carolina, 1904, Courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C.

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps tell a story of great change that occurred between 1904 (pictured) and 1910. Initially, the home of C.Y. and Maggie Nesbit, a one-story, square-shaped dwelling occupied this lot. Within six years, a two-story, rectangular residence with a façade-width porch was erected.  During that time period, jeweler F.J. Williams and his wife Mamie, appear to have had the financial means to construct a larger house in the latest architectural fashion.

Robert Mills District West

1830 Marion Street

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34

Robert Mills District West

1316-1328 Richland Street

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, Columbia, South Carolina, 1919, Courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C.

When recorded in 1919 by the Sanborn Fire Insurance Company, the south side of this block featured distinctly different houses. Late 19th-century, one-story residences formerly stood at 1316 and 1328, where two-story American Foursquare structures stand today. The “foursquare” form proved popular among middle-class families during the 1910s and 1920s for its size and layout and was found throughout Columbia’s suburbs and redeveloped areas of downtown.

Robert Mills District West

1316-1328 Richland Street

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35

Robert Mills District West

1327 Richland Street

Since its construction between 1895 and 1897, this cottage has been home to various citizens, including a machinist, clerk, bookkeeper, insurance agent, and druggist.  By 1978, the late 19th-century dwelling had been converted into offices. The later addition of a porte cochere, or open-sided extension of the porch that offered passengers shelter when entering or exiting vehicles, grants this structure a measure of distinction among neighboring buildings.

Robert Mills District West

1327 Richland Street

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36

Robert Mills District West

Ebenezer Lutheran Church

Ebenezer Lutheran Church’s congregation began in a small brick structure on this site in 1830. In 1870, a masonry chapel (pictured), whose construction was partially underwritten by northern Lutherans, replaced the original building destroyed during Union occupation in February 1865. In 1931, the congregation built a larger, Gothic Revival style sanctuary immediately to its west to accommodate growing numbers of worshippers.

Robert Mills District West

Ebenezer Lutheran Church

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37

Robert Mills District West

Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church

Erected in 1949 following a design by Heyward Singley, a well-respected South Carolina architect noted for his public structures during the 1930s through 1950s, this mid-20th-century sanctuary incorporates many Colonial Revival style elements. Of the most prominent is the building’s vestibule, which features a broken pediment ornamentation and fluted pilasters.

Robert Mills District West

Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church

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38

Robert Mills District West

Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church

Erected in 1949 following a design by Heyward Singley, a well-respected South Carolina architect noted for his public structures during the 1930s through 1950s, this mid-20th-century sanctuary incorporates many Colonial Revival style elements. Of the most prominent is the building’s vestibule, which features a broken pediment ornamentation and fluted pilasters.

Robert Mills District West

Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church

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39

Robert Mills District West

1929 Marion Street

Image courtesy Columbia Housing Authority

Erected in 1938, originally as a dual-family residence, this commercial building blends characteristics found within both the cottage and bungalow house forms. While featuring the high-pitched roof common in cottages, this duplex has a deep porch with large columns typical of the more rustic bungalow form. Among the citizens who resided here until the late 1970s were state and federal employees and railway workers.

Robert Mills District West

1929 Marion Street

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40

Robert Mills District West

1925 Marion Street

Image courtesy Columbia Housing Authority

Identical in form and detail to residences located within other downtown Columbia neighborhoods, this 1930s bungalow may be an example of a kit house. A reaction to the excessive detailing found in late Victorian design, this architectural form celebrated the beauty and texture of building materials in a rustic and simple appearance.

Robert Mills District West

1925 Marion Street

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41

Robert Mills District West

1905 Marion Street

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, Columbia, South Carolina, 1919, Courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C.

For nearly a century this property was home to a host of citizens including a cook, policeman, mechanic, baker, and engineer. First listed in 1897, when Nalvina Brown, an African-American woman, resided at the property, this modest cottage remained a private home throughout the mid-20th-century commercial boom that transformed the district’s residential character.

Robert Mills District West

1905 Marion Street

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42

Robert Mills District West

Modjeska Monteith Simkins House

Image courtesy Modjeska Simkins Papers, South Carolina Political Collections, University Libraries, University of South Carolina

Known as the matriarch of civil rights activists of South Carolina, Modjeska Monteith Simkins lived in this house from 1932 until her death in April 1992. Built sometime between 1890 and 1895, her former home is a one-story Columbia cottage, a housing variety once prevalent throughout the district. Simkins’ life-long civil liberties activism earned her the state’s highest honor, the Order of the Palmetto, in 1996. Today, it is under the stewardship of Historic Columbia Foundation.

Robert Mills District West

Modjeska Monteith Simkins House

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43

Robert Mills District West

1417 Calhoun Street

How and why this building came to be built remains a mystery. According to the Columbia City Directory, J.L. Brothers, a conductor for the Columbia, Newberry, and Laurens (CN&L) Railroad Company, lived here with his wife Janie from 1910 until 1914. W.E. Harris and his wife Annie occupied the property from 1916 into the mid-1920s. Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps for 1910 and 1919 feature illustrations of two different buildings. Combined, these two sources suggest that Harris most likely erected today's structure between 1915 and 1919 as a replacement for Brothers’ earlier residence.

Robert Mills District West

1417 Calhoun Street

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44

Robert Mills District West

1421 Calhoun Street

Purportedly built about 1850, this antebellum cottage remained a single-family residence until 1962, when it became a commercial building like so many other former houses within the neighborhood.

Robert Mills District West

1421 Calhoun Street

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45

Robert Mills District West

1913 Bull Street

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, Columbia, South Carolina, 1904, Courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C.

When buildings cannot be saved within their historic settings, some preservationists resort to extreme measures, such as relocating properties to ensure their preservation. This former residence, built between 1898 and 1904, originally carried the address of 1426 Blanding Street (as shown on the 1904 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map) until it was relocated to Bull Street, where it remains today.

Robert Mills District West

1913 Bull Street

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